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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152038 matches for " Gerhard H. Braus "
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The Aspergillus nidulans MAPK Module AnSte11-Ste50-Ste7-Fus3 Controls Development and Secondary Metabolism
?zgür Bayram,?zlem Sarikaya Bayram,Yasar Luqman Ahmed,Jun-ichi Maruyama,Oliver Valerius,Silvio O. Rizzoli,Ralf Ficner,Stefan Irniger ,Gerhard H. Braus
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002816
Abstract: The sexual Fus3 MAP kinase module of yeast is highly conserved in eukaryotes and transmits external signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. We show here that the module of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans (An) consists of the AnFus3 MAP kinase, the upstream kinases AnSte7 and AnSte11, and the AnSte50 adaptor. The fungal MAPK module controls the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. It lacks the membrane docking yeast Ste5 scaffold homolog; but, similar to yeast, the entire MAPK module's proteins interact with each other at the plasma membrane. AnFus3 is the only subunit with the potential to enter the nucleus from the nuclear envelope. AnFus3 interacts with the conserved nuclear transcription factor AnSte12 to initiate sexual development and phosphorylates VeA, which is a major regulatory protein required for sexual development and coordinated secondary metabolite production. Our data suggest that not only Fus3, but even the entire MAPK module complex of four physically interacting proteins, can migrate from plasma membrane to nuclear envelope.
Control of Multicellular Development by the Physically Interacting Deneddylases DEN1/DenA and COP9 Signalosome
Martin Christmann equal contributor,Tilo Schmaler equal contributor,Colin Gordon,Xiaohua Huang,?zgür Bayram,Josua Schinke,Sina Stumpf,Wolfgang Dubiel ,Gerhard H. Braus
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003275
Abstract: Deneddylases remove the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from modified proteins. An increased deneddylase activity has been associated with various human cancers. In contrast, we show here that a mutant strain of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans deficient in two deneddylases is viable but can only grow as a filament and is highly impaired for multicellular development. The DEN1/DenA and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) deneddylases physically interact in A. nidulans as well as in human cells, and CSN targets DEN1/DenA for protein degradation. Fungal development responds to light and requires both deneddylases for an appropriate light reaction. In contrast to CSN, which is necessary for sexual development, DEN1/DenA is required for asexual development. The CSN-DEN1/DenA interaction that affects DEN1/DenA protein levels presumably balances cellular deneddylase activity. A deneddylase disequilibrium impairs multicellular development and suggests that control of deneddylase activity is important for multicellular development.
LaeA Control of Velvet Family Regulatory Proteins for Light-Dependent Development and Fungal Cell-Type Specificity
?zlem Sarikaya Bayram equal contributor,?zgür Bayram equal contributor,Oliver Valerius,Hee Soo Park,Stefan Irniger,Jennifer Gerke,Min Ni,Kap-Hoon Han,Jae-Hyuk Yu,Gerhard H. Braus
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001226
Abstract: VeA is the founding member of the velvet superfamily of fungal regulatory proteins. This protein is involved in light response and coordinates sexual reproduction and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. In the dark, VeA bridges VelB and LaeA to form the VelB-VeA-LaeA (velvet) complex. The VeA-like protein VelB is another developmental regulator, and LaeA has been known as global regulator of secondary metabolism. In this study, we show that VelB forms a second light-regulated developmental complex together with VosA, another member of the velvet family, which represses asexual development. LaeA plays a key role, not only in secondary metabolism, but also in directing formation of the VelB-VosA and VelB-VeA-LaeA complexes. LaeA controls VeA modification and protein levels and possesses additional developmental functions. The laeA null mutant results in constitutive sexual differentiation, indicating that LaeA plays a pivotal role in inhibiting sexual development in response to light. Moreover, the absence of LaeA results in the formation of significantly smaller fruiting bodies. This is due to the lack of a specific globose cell type (Hülle cells), which nurse the young fruiting body during development. This suggests that LaeA controls Hülle cells. In summary, LaeA plays a dynamic role in fungal morphological and chemical development, and it controls expression, interactions, and modification of the velvet regulators.
The Velvet Family of Fungal Regulators Contains a DNA-Binding Domain Structurally Similar to NF-κB
Yasar Luqman Ahmed equal contributor,Jennifer Gerke equal contributor,Hee-Soo Park equal contributor,?zgür Bayram,Piotr Neumann,Min Ni,Achim Dickmanns,Sun Chang Kim,Jae-Hyuk Yu ,Gerhard H. Braus ,Ralf Ficner
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001750
Abstract: Morphological development of fungi and their combined production of secondary metabolites are both acting in defence and protection. These processes are mainly coordinated by velvet regulators, which contain a yet functionally and structurally uncharacterized velvet domain. Here we demonstrate that the velvet domain of VosA is a novel DNA-binding motif that specifically recognizes an 11-nucleotide consensus sequence consisting of two motifs in the promoters of key developmental regulatory genes. The crystal structure analysis of the VosA velvet domain revealed an unforeseen structural similarity with the Rel homology domain (RHD) of the mammalian transcription factor NF-κB. Based on this structural similarity several conserved amino acid residues present in all velvet domains have been identified and shown to be essential for the DNA binding ability of VosA. The velvet domain is also involved in dimer formation as seen in the solved crystal structures of the VosA homodimer and the VosA-VelB heterodimer. These findings suggest that defence mechanisms of both fungi and animals might be governed by structurally related DNA-binding transcription factors.
Systematic Comparison of the Effects of Alpha-synuclein Mutations on Its Oligomerization and Aggregation
Diana F. Lázaro,Eva F. Rodrigues,Ramona Langohr,Hedieh Shahpasandzadeh,Thales Ribeiro,Patrícia Guerreiro,Ellen Gerhardt,Katharina Kr?hnert,Jochen Klucken,Marcos D. Pereira,Blagovesta Popova,Niels Kruse,Brit Mollenhauer,Silvio O. Rizzoli,Gerhard H. Braus,Karin M. Danzer,Tiago F. Outeiro
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004741
Abstract: Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (ASYN) in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the typical pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding for ASYN are associated with familial and sporadic forms of PD, suggesting this protein plays a central role in the disease. However, the precise contribution of ASYN to neuronal dysfunction and death is unclear. There is intense debate about the nature of the toxic species of ASYN and little is known about the molecular determinants of oligomerization and aggregation of ASYN in the cell. In order to clarify the effects of different mutations on the propensity of ASYN to oligomerize and aggregate, we assembled a panel of 19 ASYN variants and compared their behaviour. We found that familial mutants linked to PD (A30P, E46K, H50Q, G51D and A53T) exhibited identical propensities to oligomerize in living cells, but had distinct abilities to form inclusions. While the A30P mutant reduced the percentage of cells with inclusions, the E46K mutant had the opposite effect. Interestingly, artificial proline mutants designed to interfere with the helical structure of the N-terminal domain, showed increased propensity to form oligomeric species rather than inclusions. Moreover, lysine substitution mutants increased oligomerization and altered the pattern of aggregation. Altogether, our data shed light into the molecular effects of ASYN mutations in a cellular context, and established a common ground for the study of genetic and pharmacological modulators of the aggregation process, opening new perspectives for therapeutic intervention in PD and other synucleinopathies.
A Critical Study of the Elastic Properties and Stability of Heusler Compounds: Phase Change and Tetragonal X2YZ Compounds  [PDF]
Shuchun Wu, S. Shahab Naghavi, Gerhard H. Fecher, Claudia Felser
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.94050
Abstract: In the present work, the elastic constants and derived properties of tetragonal Heusler compounds were calculated using the high accuracy of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method. To find the criteria required for an accurate calculation, the consequences of increasing the numbers of k-points and plane waves on the convergence of the calculated elastic constants were explored. Once accurate elastic constants were calculated, elastic anisotropies, sound velocities, Debye temperatures, malleability, and other measurable physical properties were determined for the studied systems. The elastic properties suggested metallic bonding with intermediate malleability, between brittle and ductile, for the studied Heusler compounds. To address the effect of off-stoichiometry on the mechanical properties, the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) was used to calculate the elastic constants. The results indicated that an extreme correlation exists between the anisotropy ratio and the stoichiometry of the Heusler compounds, especially in the case of Ni2MnGa. Metastable cubic Ni2MnGa exhibits a very high anisotropy (28) and hypothetical cubic Rh2FeSn violates the Born-Huang stability criteria in the L21 structure. The bulk moduli of the investigated tetragonal compounds do not vary much (130 ...190 GPa). The averaged values of the other elastic moduli are also rather similar, however, rather large differences are found for the elastic anisotropies of the compounds. These are reflected in very different spatial distributions of Young’s moduli when comparing the different compounds. The slowness surfaces of the compounds also differ considerably even though the average sound velocities are in the same order of magnitude (3.2 ... 3.6 km/s). The results demonstrate the importance of the elastic properties not only for purely tetragonal Heusler compounds but also for phase change materials that exhibit magnetic shape memory or magnetocaloric effects.
A High Performance Pocket-Size System for Evaluations in Acoustic Signal Processing
Rass Uwe,Steeger Gerhard H
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2001,
Abstract: Custom-made hardware is attractive for sophisticated signal processing in wearable electroacoustic devices, but has a high initial cost overhead. Thus, signal processing algorithms should be tested thoroughly in real application environments by potential end users prior to the hardware implementation. In addition, the algorithms should be easily alterable during this test phase. A wearable system which meets these requirements has been developed and built. The system is based on the high performance signal processor Motorola DSP56309. This device also includes high quality stereo analog-to-digital-(ADC)- and digital-to-analog-(DAC)-converters with 20 bit word length each. The available dynamic range exceeds 88 dB. The input and output gains can be adjusted by digitally controlled potentiometers. The housing of the unit is small enough to carry it in a pocket (dimensions 150 × 80 × 25 mm). Software tools have been developed to ease the development of new algorithms. A set of configurable Assembler code modules implements all hardware dependent software routines and gives easy access to the peripherals and interfaces. A comfortable fitting interface allows easy control of the signal processing unit from a PC, even by assistant personnel. The device has proven to be a helpful means for development and field evaluations of advanced new hearing aid algorithms, within interdisciplinary research projects. Now it is offered to the scientific community.
The Denjoy type-of argument for quasiperiodically forced circle diffeomorphisms
Tobias H. Jaeger,Gerhard Keller
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: We carry the argument used in the proof of the Theorem of Denjoy over to the quasiperiodically forced case. Thus we derive that if a system of quasiperiodically forced circle diffeomorphisms with bounded variation of the derivative has no invariant graphs with a certain kind of topological regularity, then the system is topologically transitive.
In Memoriam Manuel Gregorio Camelo Martínez (1940-2008)
Gerhard Heinze,Héctor Pérez
Salud mental , 2008,
Abstract:
Search for Single Top Production at HERA
Gerhard Brandt,for the H1 Collaboration
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1393/ncb/i2008-10686-3
Abstract: A search for single top production in ep collisions using the complete high energy data from HERA is presented. This search is based on the analysis of events containing isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and missing transverse momentum PTmiss. In the absence of a signal, an upper limit on the top production cross section sigma_ep -> etX < 0.16 pb is established at the 95% confidence level, corresponding to an upper bound on the anomalous magnetic coupling kappa_tug < 0.14. The search is complemented by a search for events containing an isolated tau lepton and PTmiss and the measurement of W boson polarisation fractions.
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