Abstract:
We analyze the modular properties of the effective CFT description for Jain plateaux corresponding to the fillings nu=m/(2pm+1). We construct its characters for the twisted and the untwisted sector and the diagonal partition function. We show that the degrees of freedom entering the partition function go to complete a Z_{m}-orbifold construction of the RCFT U(1)xSU(m)$ proposed for the Jain states. The resulting extended algebra of the chiral primary fields can be also viewed as a RCFT extension of the U(1)xW(m) minimal models. For m=2 we prove that our model, the TM, gives the RCFT closure of the extended minimal models U(1)xW(2).

Abstract:
We found new identities among the Dedekind eta-function, the characters of the W_{m} algebra and those of the level 1 affine Lie algebra su(m)_{1}. They allow to characterize the Z_{m}-orbifold of the m-component free bosons u(1)_{K_{m,p}} (our theory TM) as an extension of the fully degenerate representations of W_{1+infty}^{(m)}. In particular, TM is proven to be a Gamma _{theta}-RCFT extension of the chiral fully degenerate W_{1+infty}^{(m)}.

Abstract:
We show how to realize a ``protected'' qubit by using a fully frustrated Josephson Junction ladder (JJL) with Mobius boundary conditions. Such a system has been recently studied within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547) and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization (Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83). The relevance of a ``closed'' geometry has been fully exploited in relating the topological properties of the ground state of the system to the presence of half flux quanta and the emergence of a topological order has been predicted (JSTAT (2005) P03006). In this letter the stability and transformation properties of the ground states under adiabatic magnetic flux change are analyzed and the deep consequences on the realization of a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence, are presented.

Abstract:
It is shown that the phase diagram of the two-dimensional generalized fully-frustrated XY model on a square lattice contains a crossing of the chirality transition and the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition, as well as a stable phase characterized by a finite helicity modulus $\Upsilon$ and an unbroken chirality symmetry. The crossing point itself is consistent with a critical point without any jump in $\Upsilon$, with the size ($L$) scaling $% \Upsilon\sim L^{-0.63}$ and the critical index $\nu\approx0.77$. The KT transition line remains continuous beyond the crossing but eventually turns into a first-order line. The results are established using Monte-Carlo simulations of the staggered magnetization, helicity modulus, and the fourth-order helicity modulus.

Abstract:
Recently a one-dimensional closed ladder of Josephson junctions has been studied (G. Cristofano et al., Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 2464) within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach (G. Cristofano et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547) and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization (G. Cristofano et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83). That led us to predict the emergence of a topological order in such a system (G. Cristofano et al., JSTAT (2005) P03006). In this letter we analyze the ground states and the topological properties of fully frustrated Josephson junction arrays (JJA) arranged in a Corbino disk geometry for a variety of boundary conditions. In particular minimal configurations of fully frustrated JJA are considered and shown to exhibit the properties needed in order to build up a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence. The stability and transformation properties of the ground states of the JJA under adiabatic magnetic flux changes are analyzed in detail in order to provide a tool for the manipulation of the proposed qubit.

Abstract:
A 2D Fully Frustrated XY(FFXY) class of models is shown to contain a new groundstate in addition to the checkerboard groundstates of the standard 2D FFXY model. The spin configuration of this additional groundstate is obtained. Associated with this groundstate there are additional phase transitions. An order parameter accounting for these new transitions is proposed. The transitions associated with the new order parameter are suggested to be similar to a 2D liquid-gas transition which implies Z_2-Ising like transitions. This suggests that the class of 2D FFXY models belongs within a U(1) x Z_2 x Z_2-designation of possible transitions, which implies that there are seven different possible single and combined transitions. MC-simulations for the generalized fully frustrated XY (GFFXY) model on a square lattice are used to investigate which of these possibilities can be realized in practice: five of the seven are encountered. Four critical points are deduced from the MC-simulations, three consistent with central charge c=3/2 and one with c=1. The implications for the standard 2D FFXY-model are discussed in particular with respect to the long standing controversy concerning the characteristics of its phase transitions.

Abstract:
Significative developments on the primordial black hole quantization seem to indicate that the structure formation in the universe behaves under a unified scheme. This leads to the existence of scaling relations, whose validity could offer insights on the process of unification between quantum mechanics and gravity. Encouraging results have been obtained in order to recover the observed magnitudes of angular momenta, peculiar radii and virialized times for large and small structures. In the cosmological regime, we show that it seems possible to infer the magnitude of the cosmological constant in terms of the matter density, in agreement with the observed values.

Abstract:
We show how the low-energy properties of the 2-leg XXZ spin-1/2 ladders with general anisotropy parameter $\Delta $ on closed geometries can be accounted for in the framework of the m-reduction procedure developed in [1]. In the limit of quasi-decoupled chains, a conformal field theory (CFT) with central charge c=2 is derived and its ability to describe the model with different boundary conditions is shown. Special emphasis is given to the Mobius boundary conditions which generate a topological defect corresponding to non trivial single-spinon excitations. Then, in the case of the 2-leg XXX ladders we discuss in detail the role of various perturbations in determining the renormalization group flow starting from the ultraviolet (UV) critical point with c=2.

Abstract:
Following a suggestion given in Nucl. Phys. B 300 (1988)611,we show how the U(1)*Z_{2} symmetry of the fully frustrated XY (FFXY) model on a square lattice can be accounted for in the framework of the m-reduction procedure developed for a Quantum Hall system at "paired states" fillings nu =1 (cfr. Cristofano et al.,Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000)1679;Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002)547). The resulting twisted conformal field theory (CFT) with central charge c=2 is shown to well describe the physical properties of the FFXY model. In particular the whole phase diagram is recovered by analyzing the flow from the Z_{2} degenerate vacuum of the c=2 CFT to the infrared fixed point unique vacuum of the c=3/2 CFT. The last theory is known to successfully describe the critical behavior of the system at the overlap temperature for the Ising and vortex-unbinding transitions.

Abstract:
Following a suggestion given in Phys. Lett. B 571 (2003) 250, we show how a bilayer Quantum Hall system at fillings nu =m/pm+2 can exhibit a point-like topological defect in its edge state structure. Indeed our CFT theory for such a system, the Twisted Model (TM), gives rise in a natural way to such a feature in the twisted sector. Our results are in agreement with recent experimental findings (cond-mat/0503478) which evidence the presence of a topological defect in the bilayer system.