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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2077 matches for " Gerald Persha "
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Planetary Collisions outside the Solar System: Time Domain Characterization of Extreme Debris Disks
Huan Y. A. Meng,Kate Y. L. Su,George H. Rieke,Wiphu Rujopakarn,Gordon Myers,Michael Cook,Emery Erdelyi,Chris Maloney,James McMath,Gerald Persha,Saran Poshyachinda,Daniel E. Reichart
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/77
Abstract: Luminous debris disks of warm dust in the terrestrial planet zones around solar-like stars are recently found to vary, indicative of ongoing large-scale collisions of rocky objects. We use Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\mu}m time-series observations in 2012 and 2013 (extended to 2014 in one case) to monitor 5 more debris disks with unusually high fractional luminosities ("extreme debris disk"), including P1121 in the open cluster M47 (80 Myr), HD 15407A in the AB Dor moving group (80 Myr), HD 23514 in the Pleiades (120 Myr), HD 145263 in the Upper Sco Association (10 Myr), and the field star BD+20 307 (>1 Gyr). Together with the published results for ID8 in NGC 2547 (35 Myr), this makes the first systematic time-domain investigation of planetary impacts outside the solar system. Significant variations with timescales shorter than a year are detected in five out of the six extreme debris disks we have monitored. However, different systems show diverse sets of characteristics in the time domain, including long-term decay or growth, disk temperature variations, and possible periodicity.
Attosecond-Scale Probing of the Electron Motion in the H-Atom Groundstate  [PDF]
Gerald Rosen
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.312230
Abstract: Based on recent advances in attosecond strong-field spectroscopy and the current feasibility for trapping individual groundstate H-atoms from a neon-gas matrix, an experiment to probe the groundstate motion of the electron in the H-atom is proposed here.
A Mathematical Proof: Focus during Weekdays Should Be on Supply for the Sabbath a Support for Workable Competition  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38116
Abstract: This paper proves mathematically in a defined model with restrictive assumptions that consumers are better off when they have more food for the Sabbath at the expense of having less food for the other six days of the week! Like the manna that fell from heaven for forty years in the desert—an omer to a person, Sunday through Friday with double portions on Friday—we assume that consumers buy standardized semi-perishable food baskets, one basket per person per day, Sunday through Friday with extra baskets for the Sabbath. We analyze benefits to consumers according to two alternative pricing schemes, whereby consumer expenditures and weekly food consumed are the same. We prove that consumers are better off according to the pricing scheme that allows for more food for the Sabbath day. This agrees with business cycle theories that urge social focus on increasing and prolonging cyclical peaks. This supports John M. Clark’s workable competition thesis and will surprise supporters of SR marginal-cost pricing.
A Model Illustrating Consumer Inconstancy: Demand and Supply Sides  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.412088

John M. Clark in his classic 1923 Economics of Overhead Costs asks if anyone knows what it costs to supply demand irregularity. He also asks if consumers need demand irregularity, consciously or unconsciously. We provide a model for a plausible theoretical basis to begin to answer each question. The models permit mathematical proofs and graphic demonstrations of the costs to society of supplying for demand irregularity and of the willingness to pay on the part of consumers for demand irregularity. JEL (D24).


A Model of Manufacturers and Buyers of Cars over the Business Cycle Illustrating Competitive Manufacturing  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47070

We illustrate competitive manufacturing with an original theoretical model of manufacturers and buyers of cars over a business cycle that have peak and off-peak demand periods. There are two types of plants manufacturing cars, plantK and plantL, each having linear total costs with absolute capacity limits. PlantK operates with low VC and high FC by being capital intensive. PlantK is output-rates rigid since it produces throughout the business cycle and always at capacity. PlantL operates with low FC and high VC by relying on outsourcing major components and parts. PlantL is output-rates flexible since it produces only in the peak-demand periods. We show results under SRMC pricing. Then we examine an alternate arrangement which

A Model of Room Rentals in a Seasonal Hotel Illustrating Monopolistic Competition  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.42021

We illustrate monopolistic competition with an original model of hotel rooms for daily rental that has peak and off-peak demand periods. There are two types of hotels, hotelK and hotelL, each having linear total costs with absolute capacity limits. HotelsK are static efficient since they operate with low MC. They are open year-around and always at full capacity. HotelsL are output flexible since they operate with low FC. They open only in the peak-demand periods. We show, under conditions of the model, that the added cost to supply irregular demand should be small because of hotelsL low FC. We show, under the conditions of the model, that the added gain in consumer surplus in increasing the irregularity should be large because consumers will be switching some consumption from off-peak to peak periods.

Visions beyond Control: The Role of Art in Exploring Dual-Use Bioethics Education for Scientists  [PDF]
Gerald Walther
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412A2006
Abstract: In the wake of the anthrax attacks in the US in 2001, the Biological Weapons Convention has increasingly focused its efforts on reducing the risk of bioterrorism. One of the questions that received particular attention was how to prevent the misuse of benign biological research for malign purposes. The argument is that modern biological research is rife with research that is dual-use in nature, i.e. that it can be used either for benign or malign purposes. Over the last decade, the debate has increasingly focussed on the role and responsibility of the scientific community in addressing this issue. Education in dual-use ethics has been considered as one of the major factors that can help with the dual-use problem. However, even general science ethics education is limited at the moment and presents a challenge to any lecturer. In discussing the views of Martin Heidegger and Richard Rorty’s interpretation of Heidegger, this article argues for the use of art and bioart as educational vehicles to help scientists explore their roles and responsibilities with regard to their own research and its dual-use nature.
A Numerical Example Illustrating Cost of Idle Capacity in Manufacturing  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49105
Abstract: We present an elaborate numerical example of a competitive manufacturing industry in the United States facing demand fluctuations to illustrate cost of idle capacity in manufacturing. We show that given demand fluctuations, such as the business cycle, significant cost of idle capacity is not only ordinary and necessary but desirable! We recommend manufacturing firms in the United States increase outsourcing major parts and components to increase output-rates flexibility. Outsourcing is rising in recent years with advances in internet, computers, and telephone. Manufacturers today can depend on getting needed parts “just-in-time” from outside suppliers without maintaining inventories of parts or capacity to produce parts.
Globalization: Alternative Pricing in a Peak-Load Pricing Model  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.87062
Abstract: We discuss globalization and the current recession in manufacturing and construction. We present a theoretical model of globalization, of two countries, X and Y, each with open-market systems domestically and internationally. We compare two pricing policies in each country: short-run marginal cost, SRMC, versus prices fixed, \"\", over the business cycle. We present a proposition and proof. We give a detailed numerical example with graphs for each country. The main result is that \"\"?over the business cycle increases the volatility of Q demand over the cycle and increases consumer surplus in both countries under certain conditions. The numerical example shows a drawback of SRMC pricing under demand fluctuations—that the required price in high-demand times to balance accounts becomes extremely high. Consumers are better off with \"\", paying a small increase over SRMC in the off-peak, 6/7th of the time, to avoid the extremely large required price of SRMC in the peak times, because it’s only 1/7 of the time. The surprising point is that though peak times are infrequent, the prices and quantities at peak times determine which pricing arrangement is better for consumers.
A Simple Numerical Example Illustrating Flexible versus Inflexible Manufacturing Systems  [PDF]
Gerald Aranoff
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.91015
Abstract: Flexible manufacturing system is a wonderful development in manufacturing technology that permits a modern factory to switch easily to making different products. I present a simple numerical example to illustrate flexible manufacturing system (K) and inflexible manufacturing system (L). K can produce product 1 or product 2 with the same machinery and with zero setup costs in changing output from product 1 to 2 or from product 2 to 1. L can produce only one product, product 2. I assume large numbers of producers and buyers of products 1 and 2, open market systems, each acting to his/her interest to secure profits and consumer welfare with minimal government interference/ regulation. I assume both K and L have linear total costs with absolute capacity limits. If prices are above SRMC then plants produce at capacity. Producers are price takers only. If price equals or below SRMC plants shutdown. I assume demand for products 1 and 2 are random and alternate, meaning never at the same. I assume ease of entry/exit of producers. Long-run equilibrium requires zero expected profits for all producers.
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