Abstract:
A model-independent analysis of the infinite-momentum-frame charge density of partons in the transverse plane is presented for the nucleon. We find that the neutron parton charge density is negative at the center, so that the square of the transverse charge radius is positive, in contrast with many expectations. Additionally, the proton's central u quark charge density is larger than that of the d quark by about 70 %. The proton (neutron) charge density has a long range positively (negatively) charged component.

Abstract:
Spin-dependent quark densities, matrix elements of specific density operators in proton states of definite spin-polarization, indicate that the nucleon may harbor an infinite variety of non-spherical shapes. We show that these matrix elements are closely related to specific transverse momentum dependent parton distributions accessible in the angular dependence of the semi-inclusive processes electron plus proton goes to electron plus pion plus anything, and the Drell-Yan reaction proton plus proton goes to a lepton anti-lepton pair plus anything. New measurements or analyses would allow the direct exhibition of the non-spherical nature of the proton.

Abstract:
A simple exact covariant model in which a scalar particle is modeled as a bound state of two different particles is used to elucidate relativistic aspects of electromagnetic form factors. The model form factor is computed using an exact covariant calculation of the lowest-order triangle diagram and shown to be the same as that obtained using light-front techniques. The meaning of transverse density is explained using coordinate space variables, allowing us to identify a true mean-square transverse size directly related to the form factor. We show that the rest-frame charge distribution is generally not observable because of the failure to uphold current conservation. Neutral systems of two charged constituents are shown to obey the lore that the heavier one is generally closer to the transverse origin than the lighter one. It is argued that the negative central charge density of the neutron arises, in pion-cloud models, from pions of high longitudinal momentum. The non-relativistic limit is defined precisely and the ratio of the binding energy to that of the mass of the lightest constituent is shown to govern the influence of relativistic effects. The exact relativistic formula for the form factor reduces to the familiar one of the three-dimensional Fourier transform of a square of a wave function for a very limited range of parameters. For masses that mimic the quark-di-quark model of the nucleon we find substantial relativistic corrections for any value of $Q^2$. A schematic model of the lowest s-states of nuclei is used to find that relativistic effects decrease the form factor for light nuclei but increase the form factor for heavy nuclei. Furthermore, these states are strongly influenced by relativity.

Abstract:
Electromagnetic form factors have long been used to probe the underlying charge and magnetization densities of hadrons and nuclei. Traditional three-dimensional Fourier transform methods are not rigorously applicable for systems with constituents that move relativistically. The use of the transverse charge density is a new, rigorously defined way to analyze electromagnetic form factors of hadrons.This review is concerned with the following issues: what is a transverse charge density; how is one extracted one from elastic scattering data; the existing results; what is the relationship with other observable quantities; and, future prospects.

Abstract:
Nucleon structure is currently understood from a unified light-front, infinite-momentum-frame framework. The specific examples of the neutron transverse charge distribution and the shape of the proton are discussed here.

Abstract:
A model proton wave function, constructed using Poincare invariance, and constrained by recent electromagnetic form factor data, is used to study the shape of the proton. Spin-dependent quark densities are defined as matrix elements of density operators in proton states of definite spin-polarization, and shown to have an infinite variety of non-spherical shapes. For high momentum quarks with spin parallel to that of the proton, the shape resembles that of a peanut, but for quarks with anti-parallel spin the shape is that of a bagel.

Abstract:
A model-independent analysis of the infinite-momentum-frame charge density of partons in the transverse plane is presented for the nucleon. We find that the neutron parton charge density is negative at the center, so that the square of the transverse charge radius is positive, in contrast with many expectations. Additionally, the proton's central u quark charge density is larger than that of the d quark by about 70 %. The proton (neutron) charge density has a long range positively (negatively) charged component.

Abstract:
The experimental discovery that the nucleus is approximately transparent to low energy pions is reviewed. The consequences of this for nuclear deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan interactions are discussed. I argue that low energy nucleus data imply that there is little nuclear enhancement of the pion cloud of a nucleon, and try to interpret this in terms of nucleon-nucleon correlations.

Abstract:
Spin-dependent quark densities, matrix elements of specific density operators in proton states of definite spin-polarization, indicate that the nucleon may harbor an infinite variety of non-spherical shapes. We show that these matrix elements are closely related to specific transverse momentum dependent parton distributions accessible in the angular dependence of the semi-inclusive processes electron plus proton goes to electron plus pion plus anything, and the Drell-Yan reaction proton plus proton goes to a lepton anti-lepton pair plus anything. New measurements or analyses would allow the direct exhibition of the non-spherical nature of the proton.