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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1405 matches for " Georges Lutfalla "
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Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish
Georges Lutfalla, Hugues Crollius, Nicole Stange-thomann, Olivier Jaillon, Knud Mogensen, Danièle Monneron
BMC Genomics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-4-29
Abstract: We have used an original strategy based both on conserved amino acid sequence and gene structure to identify HCII and HCRII in the genome of another pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis that is amenable to laboratory experiments. The 15 genes that were identified are highly divergent and include a single interferon molecule, three IL10 related cytokines and their potential receptors together with two Tissue Factor (TF). Some of these genes form tandem clusters on the Tetraodon genome. Their expression pattern was determined in different tissues. Most importantly, Tetraodon interferon was identified and we show that the recombinant protein can induce antiviral MX gene expression in Tetraodon primary kidney cells. Similar results were obtained in Zebrafish which has 7 MX genes.We propose a scheme for the evolution of HCII and their receptors during the radiation of bony vertebrates and suggest that the diversification that played an important role in the fine-tuning of the ancestral mechanism for host defense against infections probably followed different pathways in amniotes and fish.The increasing number of sequenced genomes provides molecular explanations for both the unity and diversity of living organisms. The more divergent the organisms, the less they share genes. This explains why annotation of genomes using genes with known functions in other organisms leaves a high number of predicted genes with no predicted function. For some prokaryotes, the percentage of genes with no predicted function rises to 65% but falls to 20% for the closely related vertebrate genomes [1-3].The majority of genes with no assigned functions are those involved in the recent evolutionary success of the considered taxonomic group. This is both true for prokaryotes that develop original metabolisms allowing growth in special environments and for the vertebrate species that have developed original solutions in response to environmental pressures. Comparison of mammalian proteins show that h
Real-Time Whole-Body Visualization of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Host Interferon Response in Zebrafish
Nuno Palha,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Valérie Briolat,Georges Lutfalla,Marion Sourisseau,Felix Ellett,Chieh-Huei Wang,Graham J. Lieschke,Philippe Herbomel,Olivier Schwartz,Jean-Pierre Levraud
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003619
Abstract: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ~14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN) response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.
Ensuring Effectiveness of Economic and Monetary Policies through Considering Economic Schools of Thought: Lebanon 1990-2010  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24020
Abstract: Decision makers and executives should have a macroeconomic approach in planning and fixing economic and monetary policies for their countries. A national economy should be considered as a system including three interdependent markets: Financial market, Labor market, and Goods and Services market. Any attempt to practice an economic or monetary policy emphasizing on one or two of these markets and neglecting the third will lead to public debts, high unemployment and/or inflation rates. This neglect will also increase the financial crises risk especially for developing countries. These developing countries are suffering from being not able to apply liberal policies, compete in the international multilateral trade system, and benefit from globalization. Why Lebanese government is still insisting on applying liberal policies, high tax rate, low government expenses and investments, fixed exchange rate, and high interest rate? Is it reasonable and possible to have a developed financial market with bank deposits equaling three times the Lebanese GDP, and at the same time, a very weak labor and goods and services markets characterized by 18% unemployment rate and a very low consumers’ purchasing power? How does Lebanon have a huge public debt equaling twice its national GDP and be considered by the IMF as the fourth country in economic growth progression in the region? Why not considering Mundell’s incompatibility triangle and Kaldor’s magic square to analyze this critical economic situation? Is switching from a currency board to a forward-looking crawling PEG one of the factors to break this vicious circle?
Competitive Advantage of Nations and Multilateral Trade System: How Can Lebanon Benefit from Trade Liberalization without Enhancing Its Strategic Industries?  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme, Eliane Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24023
Abstract: International trade theories explain the advantage of nations to adopt a liberal trade model and to participate in the multilateral trade system via liberalizing their systems by eliminating trade quotas, tariff barriers and other forms of protectionism. The influence of international institutions on trade flow, mainly the World Trade Organization (WTO), has been important. The WTO contributed by helping and advising governments so that they would benefit from multilateral agreements by granting preferential treatments for developing countries joining the institution, and making them learn from other countries’ experiences in the accession process. Both liberalizing and protecting local production have advantages and weaknesses; how do existing theories about trade policy explain this landscape? Liberalizing the economy proved to be beneficial for some countries, while others suffered from distasting consequences on domestic production, employment and purchasing power. Some researches explained that large-scale changes in political institutions, especially in the direction of democracy, may be necessary for the kind of massive trade liberalization that has occurred. Changes in preferences cannot be overlooked in some economies while explaining the rush to free trade. The reciprocal impact of trade on domestic policies and the international political system is important. Analyzing the hypotheses about nation’s competitiveness and its dependence on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade deems indispensable. This paper will be testing the relevancy from applying Michael Porter’s diamonds theory and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model on developing economies, mainly Lebanon, in order to gain national competitive advantages while having strong regional and international rivals. Do companies gain advantage against the world’s best competitors because of pressure and challenges? Lebanese productive companies are suffering from lack of competitiveness because of weak governmental support and absence of public planning to enhance strategic industries by developing a strong flexible export based model. With a 2.6 billons dollars deficit of its balance of payment, how can Lebanese government join the WTO and liberalize its trade system while avoiding its negative impact on national and social prosperity?
From the Search for a Molecular Code of Memory to the Role of Neurotransmitters: A Historical Perspective
Georges Chapouthier
Neural Plasticity , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/np.2004.151
Abstract: The history of the neurochemistry of mnesic processes can be divided into two main periods: the first (1946-1978) was inspired by the results of molecular genetics, providing evidence for storage of hereditary information in the DNA of genes. Therefore, the chemical bases for memory were investigated in the macromolecules of the brain. Such attempts were relatively unsuccessful, which led to a second period (starting in 1978) with the research emphasizing, in a less ambitious way, the role of the molecular correlates of mnesic processes, in particular in the main transmitter systems of the brain.
Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned
Georges Ramalanjaona
Emergency Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/920813
Abstract: Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they constitute a region at risk, due to the presence of tectonic interactive plate, absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, and lack established communication network providing timely information to that region. Our paper has a dual objective: the first objective is to report the 2004 tsunami event in relation to the 11 nations bordering the Indian Ocean. The second one is to elaborate on lessons learned from it from national, regional, and international disaster management programs to prevent such devastating consequences of tsunami from occurring again in the future. 1. Introduction Tsunami is a series of ocean waves typically caused by large undersea earthquakes or volcano eruptions at tectonic plate boundaries. These surges of water may reach 100 feet and cause widespread destruction when they crash ashore. They race across the sea at a speed up to 500 miles per hour and cross the entire Pacific Ocean in less than one day. Their long wavelength means that they lose very little energy along the way. Tsunami of December 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most infamous tsunami of modern times with disastrous consequences in many areas [1](i)humanitarian toll: it affected more than 18 countries from Southeast Asia to Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day and leaving more than one million homeless,(ii)economic toll: it left several million of dollars of economic loss affecting fishing and tourist industries,(iii)environmental and medical threats including water pollution and flooding and endemic diseases. The rationale for writing this paper is to report the tsunami events in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they received less publicity than their Southeast Asian countries counterpart although the 2004 tsunami had real humanitarian, economic, and environmental impact in these regions more than 1,000 miles away from the epicenter [2]. Furthermore, these regions are at risk from the devastating effects of future tsunami due to the presence of a tectonic interactive
Estrategias de comunicación y marketing urbano
EURE (Santiago) , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71612000007900004
Abstract: territorial marketing is an ancient phenomenon, but since the 1980?s, it has intensified. rivalry and competition between cities and regions are clearly put at the fore. this renewal of communication strategies has economic and social foundations: globalization and widening of competition; the local as a social and economic phenomenon; the fast evolution of communication; and, finally, the evolution of marketing itself. this article analyses this new field of study, linked to the representation of space, and its methods
El impacto de los tecnopolos en el desarrollo regional: Una revisión crítica
EURE (Santiago) , 1998, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71611998007300003
Abstract: verified since three decades ago, the profund changes suffered by industrial nations has finally provoked a deep break with the precedent ford′s development model. although the transition between one model to the other isn′t finished yet, is cleary appreciated by now that new urban economical order is strongly influenciated by three elements: technological revolution, economical globalization and the emergency of a new productive system. based on those concerns, this article reviews the theoretical debates that has accompanied those innovations experienced with unusual intensity during the last years
As rela??es com a produtividade: o caso do servi?o de informa??es telef?nicas
Georges, Isabel;
Tempo Social , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20702002000100008
Abstract: the article discusses the construction of the notion of productivity in the system of telephone information services in france. in order to do so, it looks at the present technical and spatial reorganization of the service, the formalization of its activities, the administrative practices of the people in charge, and the operators' work practices, confronting different possibilities of definition of the services delivered, and thus, their productivity.
Threshold resummation to any order in (1-x)
Grunberg, Georges
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: A simple ansatz is suggested for the structure of threshold resummation of the momentum space physical evolution kernels (`physical anomalous dimensions') at all orders in (1-x), taking as examples Deep Inelastic Scattering (F_2(x, Q^2) and F_L(x, Q^2)) and the Drell-Yan process. Each term in the expansion is associated to a distinct renormalization group and scheme invariant perturbative object (`physical Sudakov anomalous dimension') depending on a single momentum scale variable. Both logarithmically enhanced terms and constant terms are captured by the ansatz at any order in the expansion. The ansatz is motivated by a large--beta_0 dispersive calculation. A dispersive representation at finite beta_0 of the physical Sudakov anomalous dimensions is also obtained, associated to a set of `Sudakov effective charges' which encapsulate the non-Abelian nature of the interaction. It is found that the dispersive representation requires a non-trivial, and process-dependent, choice of variables in the (x,Q^2) plane. Some interesting properties of the physical Sudakov anomalous dimensions are pointed out. The ensuing 1/N expansion in moment space is straightforwardly derived from the momentum space expansion.
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