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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1411 matches for " Georges Barau "
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Logical Framework Analysis (LFA): An Essential Tool for Designing Agricultural Project Evaluation
DA Barau, JO Olukosi
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Evaluation of a project at any stage of its life cycle, especially at its planning stage, is necessary for its successful execution and completion. The Logical Framework Analysis or the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an essential tool in designing such evaluation because it is a process that serves as a reference guide in carrying out the evaluation. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and the structure of the Logical Framework Matrix or Logframe, derivable from it, and its role in project evaluation. The paper is based mainly on review of relevant literature on this analytical tool. The literature search shows that the LFA enables the evaluator to thoroughly scrutinize and ensure that every key factor that is needed for the success of a project is clearly identified (as listed in the matrix cells – demonstrated in Figure 4) and thus must be provided for both in quantity and quality, and also at the appropriate time in implementing the project. It helps the evaluator to check for consistency of both vertical logic (project inputs → project outputs → project objectives or purpose → project goal) and horizontal logic (narrative summary → objectively verifiable indicators → means of verification) as well as the reasonableness of the underlying assumptions concerning the (proposed) project - all of which must be established for the success of the project to be ascertained. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2011), 19(2): 260-268
Effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide on the Course of Labour  [PDF]
Dauda Deba Barau, Eyaofun Teddy Agida, Olatunde Onafowokan, Francis Olayemi Adebayo
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.812111
Abstract: Background: Hyoscine butyl bromide (Buscopan) is being used as an agent for reducing the duration of labour. There are however conflicting results on the effect of this agent on cervical dilation. Materials and Methods: This was an open label clinical trial of one hundred and thirty two (132) pregnant women in labour. Women were grouped to receive either 20 mg of hyoscine butyl bromide intramuscularly at the onset of active phase labour or placebo “Normal saline”. The main outcome measure was to compare the duration of first stage labour in the study and control groups as well as feto-maternal outcomes. Relevant data were collected using a proforma. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: A total of 132 were randomised and 123 yielded for analysis. Of these 59 received hyoscine butyl bromide and 64 received placebo. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of active labour to second stage between the drug and placebo arms (312.5 versus 305.3 minutes, respectively,
Multidisciplinary Prospective Study of Mother-to-Child Chikungunya Virus Infections on the Island of La Réunion
Patrick Gérardin,Georges Barau,Alain Michault,Marc Bintner,Hanitra Randrianaivo,Ghassan Choker,Yann Lenglet,Yasmina Touret,Anne Bouveret,Philippe Grivard,Karin Le Roux,Séverine Blanc,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Thérèse Couderc,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Marc Lecuit ? ,Pierre-Yves Robillard ?
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050060
Abstract: Background An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak. Methods and Findings Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0%) of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology) during antepartum, and 61 (0.8%) in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35–40 wk) in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%). Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3–7 d). Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6%) and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%). These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2), and four evolved towards persistent disabilities. Conclusions Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a chikungunya outbreak.
A Mouse Model for Chikungunya: Young Age and Inefficient Type-I Interferon Signaling Are Risk Factors for Severe Disease
Thérèse Couderc equal contributor,Fabrice Chrétien equal contributor,Clémentine Schilte equal contributor,Olivier Disson,Madly Brigitte,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Yasmina Touret,Georges Barau,Nadège Cayet,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Philippe Desprès,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Alain Michault,Matthew L Albert equal contributor,Marc Lecuit equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040029
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT) adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-α/βR+/?) or totally (IFN-α/βR?/?) abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.
Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La Réunion
Patrick Gérardin,Rachid El Amrani,Béatrice Cyrille,Marc Gabrièle,Philippe Guillermin,Malik Boukerrou,Brahim Boumahni,Hanitra Randrianaivo,Arnaud Winer,Jean-Fabien Rouanet,Michel Bohrer,Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee,Pierre-Yves Robillard,Georges Barau,Alain Michault
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010896
Abstract: Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Réunion.
Ensuring Effectiveness of Economic and Monetary Policies through Considering Economic Schools of Thought: Lebanon 1990-2010  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24020
Abstract: Decision makers and executives should have a macroeconomic approach in planning and fixing economic and monetary policies for their countries. A national economy should be considered as a system including three interdependent markets: Financial market, Labor market, and Goods and Services market. Any attempt to practice an economic or monetary policy emphasizing on one or two of these markets and neglecting the third will lead to public debts, high unemployment and/or inflation rates. This neglect will also increase the financial crises risk especially for developing countries. These developing countries are suffering from being not able to apply liberal policies, compete in the international multilateral trade system, and benefit from globalization. Why Lebanese government is still insisting on applying liberal policies, high tax rate, low government expenses and investments, fixed exchange rate, and high interest rate? Is it reasonable and possible to have a developed financial market with bank deposits equaling three times the Lebanese GDP, and at the same time, a very weak labor and goods and services markets characterized by 18% unemployment rate and a very low consumers’ purchasing power? How does Lebanon have a huge public debt equaling twice its national GDP and be considered by the IMF as the fourth country in economic growth progression in the region? Why not considering Mundell’s incompatibility triangle and Kaldor’s magic square to analyze this critical economic situation? Is switching from a currency board to a forward-looking crawling PEG one of the factors to break this vicious circle?
Spectrum Hole Prediction Based On Historical Data: A Neural Network Approach
Barau Gafai Najashi,Feng Wenjiang,Mohammed Dikko Almustapha
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The concept of cognitive radio pioneered by Mitola promises to change the future of wireless communication especially in the area of spectrum management. Currently, the command and control strategy employed in spectrum assignment is too rigid and needs to be reviewed. Recent studies have shown that assigned spectrum is underutilized spectrally and temporally. Cognitive radio provides a viable solution whereby licensed users can share the spectrum with unlicensed users opportunistically without causing interference. Unlicensed users must be able to sense weather the channel is busy or idle, failure to do so will lead to interference to the licensed user. In this paper, a neural network based prediction model for predicting the channel status using historical data obtained during a spectrum occupancy measurement is presented. Genetic algorithm is combined with LM BP for increasing the probability of obtaining the best weights thus optimizing the network. The results obtained indicate high prediction accuracy over all bands considered
Competitive Advantage of Nations and Multilateral Trade System: How Can Lebanon Benefit from Trade Liberalization without Enhancing Its Strategic Industries?  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme, Eliane Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24023
Abstract: International trade theories explain the advantage of nations to adopt a liberal trade model and to participate in the multilateral trade system via liberalizing their systems by eliminating trade quotas, tariff barriers and other forms of protectionism. The influence of international institutions on trade flow, mainly the World Trade Organization (WTO), has been important. The WTO contributed by helping and advising governments so that they would benefit from multilateral agreements by granting preferential treatments for developing countries joining the institution, and making them learn from other countries’ experiences in the accession process. Both liberalizing and protecting local production have advantages and weaknesses; how do existing theories about trade policy explain this landscape? Liberalizing the economy proved to be beneficial for some countries, while others suffered from distasting consequences on domestic production, employment and purchasing power. Some researches explained that large-scale changes in political institutions, especially in the direction of democracy, may be necessary for the kind of massive trade liberalization that has occurred. Changes in preferences cannot be overlooked in some economies while explaining the rush to free trade. The reciprocal impact of trade on domestic policies and the international political system is important. Analyzing the hypotheses about nation’s competitiveness and its dependence on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade deems indispensable. This paper will be testing the relevancy from applying Michael Porter’s diamonds theory and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model on developing economies, mainly Lebanon, in order to gain national competitive advantages while having strong regional and international rivals. Do companies gain advantage against the world’s best competitors because of pressure and challenges? Lebanese productive companies are suffering from lack of competitiveness because of weak governmental support and absence of public planning to enhance strategic industries by developing a strong flexible export based model. With a 2.6 billons dollars deficit of its balance of payment, how can Lebanese government join the WTO and liberalize its trade system while avoiding its negative impact on national and social prosperity?
From the Search for a Molecular Code of Memory to the Role of Neurotransmitters: A Historical Perspective
Georges Chapouthier
Neural Plasticity , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/np.2004.151
Abstract: The history of the neurochemistry of mnesic processes can be divided into two main periods: the first (1946-1978) was inspired by the results of molecular genetics, providing evidence for storage of hereditary information in the DNA of genes. Therefore, the chemical bases for memory were investigated in the macromolecules of the brain. Such attempts were relatively unsuccessful, which led to a second period (starting in 1978) with the research emphasizing, in a less ambitious way, the role of the molecular correlates of mnesic processes, in particular in the main transmitter systems of the brain.
Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned
Georges Ramalanjaona
Emergency Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/920813
Abstract: Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they constitute a region at risk, due to the presence of tectonic interactive plate, absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, and lack established communication network providing timely information to that region. Our paper has a dual objective: the first objective is to report the 2004 tsunami event in relation to the 11 nations bordering the Indian Ocean. The second one is to elaborate on lessons learned from it from national, regional, and international disaster management programs to prevent such devastating consequences of tsunami from occurring again in the future. 1. Introduction Tsunami is a series of ocean waves typically caused by large undersea earthquakes or volcano eruptions at tectonic plate boundaries. These surges of water may reach 100 feet and cause widespread destruction when they crash ashore. They race across the sea at a speed up to 500 miles per hour and cross the entire Pacific Ocean in less than one day. Their long wavelength means that they lose very little energy along the way. Tsunami of December 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most infamous tsunami of modern times with disastrous consequences in many areas [1](i)humanitarian toll: it affected more than 18 countries from Southeast Asia to Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day and leaving more than one million homeless,(ii)economic toll: it left several million of dollars of economic loss affecting fishing and tourist industries,(iii)environmental and medical threats including water pollution and flooding and endemic diseases. The rationale for writing this paper is to report the tsunami events in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they received less publicity than their Southeast Asian countries counterpart although the 2004 tsunami had real humanitarian, economic, and environmental impact in these regions more than 1,000 miles away from the epicenter [2]. Furthermore, these regions are at risk from the devastating effects of future tsunami due to the presence of a tectonic interactive
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