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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11296 matches for " George Wallerstein "
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The Composition of RR Lyrae Stars: Start-line for the AGB
George Wallerstein,Wenjin Huang
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: This paper sumarizes research on abundances in RR Lyrae stars that one of us (GW) has been engaged in with various astronomers. In addition we report on preliminary analysis of the abundances of C, Si, S and Fe in 24 RR Lyrae stars. Our model atmosphere analysis, including NLTE effects, are based on the spectra of resolving power 30,000 obtained at the Apache Poing Observatory.
Determining Photometric Metallicities of dSph Stellar Populations
Joanne Hughes,George Wallerstein
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: If there are so few upper red-giant branch stars in the SDSS-discovered dwarf galaxies, how can we find the true population structure without extensive spectroscopy? We review recent photometric and spectroscopic studies of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies, and determine a new method of estimating [Fe/H] with a combination of Washington and Stromgren filters, using Bootes I dSph as an example. We can use the CT1by filters alone to achieve 0.3 dex resolution in [Fe/H], and 0.5 Gyr resolution in age. Both the Washington and Stromgren filters, C and v, are sensitive to CN-variations; however, in stars with a large deficiency of heavy elements the CN bands are weak and not important. The [Fe/H]-sensitivity of the Washington and Stromgren combination is at least twice as great as the SDSS filters, and this work maintains that resolution on the lower red-giant branch, where other calibrations fail.
Age and Metallicity Effects in Omega Centauri
Joanne Hughes,George Wallerstein
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We have observed (with vby filters) a field north of the core of the most massive globular cluster in our galaxy, Omega Centauri. We have found a correlation of age and metallicity in a region which avoids the dense core and the inhomogeneous foreground dust emission shown by the IRAS satellite. Our observations show that the comparatively metal-rich stars (as defined by the (b-y) and m_1 colors) are younger than the metal-poor stars by at least 3 Gyr. This correlation of metallicity with age suggests that Omega Cen has enriched itself over a timescale of about 3 Gyr, and possibly longer. It is remarkable that ejecta from stellar winds combined with supernovae of type II failed to disperse the cluster's interstellar matter at an earlier epoch, but were captured by the cluster instead. Star formation would have ceased as type Ia supernovae dispersed the remaining interstellar matter. This work and other recent evidence suggests that Omega Cen could have been part of a small satellite galaxy in which all the activity occurred before it was captured by the Milky Way.
The Interstellar Line of Sight to the Interacting Galaxy NGC 5195
Adam M. Ritchey,George Wallerstein
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1086/680485
Abstract: We present moderately-high resolution echelle observations of the nucleus of NGC 5195, the line of sight to which samples intervening interstellar material associated with the outer spiral arm of M51. Our spectra reveal absorption from interstellar Na I, K I, Ca II, and CH+, and from a number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), at a velocity close to that exhibited by H I 21 cm emission from M51 at the position of NGC 5195. The H I column density implied by the equivalent width of the 5780.5 DIB, based on the relationship between W(5780.5) and N(H I) derived for sight lines in the local Galactic interstellar medium, is consistent with the column density obtained from the integrated H I emission. The H2 column density predicted from the observed column density of K I, using the Galactic relationship between N(K I) and N(H2), is comparable to N(H I), suggesting a high molecular fraction (~0.65) for the M51 gas toward NGC 5195. The DIBs toward NGC 5195 are, on average, ~40% weaker than would be expected based on the K I column density, a further indication that the gas in this direction has a high molecular content. The M51 material is characterized also by a high N(Na I)/N(Ca II) ratio (>11), indicative of a high degree of Ca depletion, and a high W(5797.1)/W(5780.5) ratio (~1.6), suggestive of either a very weak ambient radiation field or a significantly shielded environment. A high N(CH+)/N(CH) ratio (>2.3) for the M51 material toward NGC 5195 may be the result of enhanced turbulence due to interactions between M51 and its companion.
Interstellar Sodium and Calcium Absorption toward SN 2011dh in M51
Adam M. Ritchey,George Wallerstein
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/748/1/L11
Abstract: We present high-resolution echelle observations of SN 2011dh, which exploded in the nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxy M51. Our data, acquired on three nights when the supernova was near maximum brightness, reveal multiple absorption components in Na I D and Ca II H and K, which we identify with gaseous material in the Galactic disk or low halo and in the disk and halo of M51. The M51 components span a velocity range of over 140 km s^-1, extending well beyond the range exhibited by H I 21 cm emission at the position of the supernova. Since none of the prominent Na I or Ca II components appear to coincide with the peak in H I emission, the supernova may lie just in front of the bulk of the H I disk. The Na I/Ca II ratios for the components with the most extreme positive and negative velocities relative to the disk are ~1.0, similar to those for more quiescent components, suggesting that the absorption originates in relatively cool gas. Production scenarios involving a galactic fountain and/or tidal interactions between M51 and its companion would be consistent with these results. The overall weakness of Na I D absorption in the direction of SN 2011dh confirms a low foreground and host galaxy extinction for the supernova.
The Integrated Calcium II Triplet as a Metallicity Indicator: Comparisons with High Resolution [Fe/H] in M31 Globular Clusters
Charli M. Sakari,George Wallerstein
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Medium resolution (R=4,000 to 9,000) spectra of the near infrared Ca II lines (at 8498, 8542, and 8662 A) in M31 globular cluster integrated light spectra are presented. In individual stars the Ca II triplet (CaT) traces stellar metallicity; this paper compares integrated CaT strengths to well determined, high precision [Fe/H] values from high resolution integrated light spectra. The target globular clusters cover a wide range in metallicity (from [Fe/H] = -2.1 to -0.2). While most are older than 10 Gyr, some may be of intermediate age (2-6 Gyr). A handful (3-6) have detailed abundances (e.g. low [Ca/Fe]) that indicate they may have been accreted from dwarf galaxies. Using various measurements and definitions of CaT strength, it is confirmed that for GCs with [Fe/H] < -0.4 and older than 2 Gyr the integrated CaT traces cluster [Fe/H] to within about 0.2 dex, independent of age. CaT lines in metal rich GCs are very sensitive to nearby atomic lines (and TiO molecular lines in the most metal rich GCs), largely due to line blanketing in continuum regions. The [Ca/Fe] ratio has a mild effect on the integrated CaT strength in metal poor GCs. The integrated CaT can therefore be safely used to determine rough metallicities for distant, unresolved clusters, provided that attention is paid to the limits of the measurement techniques.
Metal Abundance Calibration of the Ca II Triplet Lines in RR Lyrae Stars
George Wallerstein,Thomas Gomez,Wenjin Huang
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-012-1033-6
Abstract: The GAIA satellite is likely to observe thousands of RR Lyrae stars within a small spectral window, between 8470A and 8750A, at a resolution of 11,500. In order to derive the metallicity of RR Lyrae stars from Gaia, we have obtained numerous spectra of RR Lyrae stars at a resolution of 35,000 with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m echelle spectrograph. We have correlated the Ca II triplet line strengths with metallicity as derived from Fe II abundances, analogous to Preston's (1959) use of the Ca II K line to estimate the metallicity of RR Lyrae stars. The Ca II line at 8498A is the least blended with neighboring Paschen lines and thus provides the best correlation.
Chemistry of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy: a Top-Light IMF, Outflows and the R-Process
Andrew McWilliam,George Wallerstein,Marta Mottini
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/778/2/149
Abstract: From chemical abundance analysis of stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), we conclude that the alpha-element deficiencies cannot be due to the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) time-delay scenario of Tinsley (1979). Instead, the evidence points to low [alpha/Fe] ratios resulting from an initial mass function (IMF) deficient in the highest mass stars. The critical evidence is the 0.4 dex deficiency of [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and other hydrostatic elements, contrasting with the normal trend of r-process [Eu/Fe]r with [Fe/H]. Supporting evidence comes from the hydrostatic element (O, Mg, Na, Al, Cu) [X/Fe] ratios, which are inconsistent with iron added to the Milky Way (MW) disk trends. Also, the ratio of hydrostatic to explosive (Si, Ca, Ti) element abundances suggests a relatively top-light IMF. Abundance similarities with the LMC, Fornax and IC 1613, suggest that their alpha-element deficiencies also resulted from IMFs lacking the most massive SNII. For such a top-light IMF, the normal trend of r-process [Eu/Fe]r with [Fe/H], as seen in Sgr, indicates that massive Type II supernovae (>30Msun) cannot be major sources of r-process elements. High [La/Y] ratios, consistent with leaky-box chemical evolution, are confirmed but ~0.3 dex larger than theoretical AGB predictions. This may be due to the 13C pocket mass, or a difference between MW and Sgr AGB stars. Sgr has the lowest [Rb/Zr] ratios known, consistent with low-mass (~2Msun) AGB stars near [Fe/H]=-0.6, likely resulting from leaky-box chemical evolution. The [Cu/O] trend in Sgr and the MW suggest that Cu yields increase with both metallicity and stellar mass, as expected from Cu production by the weak s-process in massive stars. Finally, we present an updated hfs line list, an abundance analysis of Arcturus, and further develop our error analysis formalism.
Mixing processes during the evolution of red giants with moderate metal deficiencies : the role of molecular-weight barriers
Corinne Charbonnel,Jeffery A. Brown,George Wallerstein
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We have assembled accurate abundance data for Li, C, and N as well as the 12C/13C ratio for five field giants with [Fe/H]=-0.6 including Arcturus and two stars in the globular cluster 47 Tuc. Using their very precise Mbol values obtained from HIPPARCOSparallaxes, we can place them into an evolutionary sequence. The sequence shows that the 12C/13C ratios ratios drops from 20 to near 7 between Mbol=+1 and +0.5, while Li disappears. At the same time the 12C/14N ratio diminishes by 0.2 to 0.4 dex. The two stars in 47 Tuc with Mbol near -2.0 show even lower 12C14N ratios by 0.4 dex indicating further mixing as they evolved to the top of the red giant branch. These observations confirm the existence of an extra-mixing process that becomes efficient on the red giant branch only when the low-mass stars reach the so-called luminosity function bump. We use the values of the carbon isotopic ratio observed in our sample to get constraints on the mu-barriers that may shield the central regions of a star from extra-mixing. We show that the same value of the critical gradient of molecular weight leads to 12C/13C ratios observed at different metallicities. This ``observational critical mu-gradient'' is in very good agreement with the one which is expected to stabilize meridional circulation. This result provides strong clues on the nature of the extra-mixing which occurs on the RGB, and indicates that it is related to rotation.
Interstellar Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Cataclysmic Variable SS Cygni
Adam M. Ritchey,George Wallerstein,Jean McKeever
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1086/674364
Abstract: We present an analysis of interstellar absorption lines in high-resolution optical echelle spectra of SS Cyg obtained during an outburst in 2013 June and in archival Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer data. The Ca II K and Na I D lines toward SS Cyg are compared with those toward nearby B and A stars in an effort to place constraints on the distance to SS Cyg. We find that the distance constraints are not very robust from this method due to the rather slow increase in neutral gas column density with distance and the scatter in the column densities from one sight line to another. However, the optical absorption-line measurements allow us to derive a precise estimate for the line-of-sight reddening of E(B-V) = 0.020+/-0.005 mag. Furthermore, our analysis of the absorption lines of O I, Si II, P II, and Fe II seen in the UV spectra yields an estimate of the H I column density and depletion strength in this direction.
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