Abstract:
Competition in quality with escalating levels of endogenous sunk costs may produce levels of concentration even higher than expected in their absence. We show that consumers may very well benefit from such expenditures despite the effects on concentration and likely attenuation of price competition.

Abstract:
We show that in a dynamic general equilibrium model theft lowers social welfare even if it is costless to steal, there is no theft prevention cost, and all stolen goods are immediately returned to society. Theft lowers social welfare because it distorts the investment decision, resulting in undercapitalization and a lower steady-state level of capital. This sheds a new light on the literature originated by Tullock [1].

Abstract:
Bifacial photovoltaic (PV) modules offer potentially enhanced power output over conventional
modules due to their reported ability to harvest reflected radiation, increasing output up to an
additional 30%. However, this enhancement has yet to be confirmed in the literature. This paper
reports on a study comparing the power output of two nominally identical 700 W photovoltaic arrays
utilizing equivalent system components and data logging equipment with varying configurations
of reflecting geometries and materials. This study was undertaken at the Appalachian State
University Solar Research Laboratory in Boone, NC, which houses two Class 1 pyranometers and
pyrheliometer. PV power was reported under well-quantified irradiance conditions, including direct
beam fraction. Six trials over six months (November-April) with varying reflective materials
and geometries revealed that different reflecting materials did not significantly change power
output. Mounting an array at 0° did adversely affect power output compared to the array at a 36°
angle relative to horizontal using the same reflective material. Additional studies with varied materials,
panel locations and geometries different from those tested may improve the power output.

Abstract:
This article presents the results of an analysis of hourly data obtained from forty-three photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in North America. Energy data collected from these systems were organized according to monthly output in an effort to identify factors which are effective in predicting energy generation. Independent variables such as system capacity, shading, longitude, latitude, seasonal variation, and orientation were considered. Multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the kilowatt-hours that can be expected from a change in the independent variables. Results show that all six independent variables are significant predictors which can be used in a regression model to estimate system output with a high level of confidence. The analysis shows that approximately 83% of the variation in the amount of energy generated monthly by the forty-three solar panels is explained by the independent variables and the derived equation. Results of the study may prove helpful to solar panel system users who may need to consider less than optimum conditions during a PV panel installation and service life.

Abstract:
A Faraday isolator is shown to develop a temperature difference between its input and output, but still complies with the second law when all the heat carriers, in this case, photons are homogeneous and indistinguishable. This result is a consequence of the H-theorem which assumes homogeneity and indistinguishability of particles. However, when a thermal feedback path is added, in which heat carriers have physical properties different from the photons in the isolator, then a heterogeneous system is formed not covered by the H-theorem, and the second law is violated.

Abstract:
Does non-transitivity in information theory have an analog in thermodynamics? A non-transitive game, “Swap”, is used as a toy thermodynamic model to explore concepts such as temperature, heat flow, equilibrium and entropy. These concepts, found to be inadequate for non-transitive thermodynamic, need to be generalized. Two kinds of temperatures, statistical and kinetic, are distinguished. Statistical temperature is a parameter in statistical distributions. Kinetic temperature is proportional to the expected kinetic energy based on its distribution. Identical for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, these temperatures differ in non-Maxwellian statistics when a force is present. Fourier’s law of conduction and entropy should be expressed using statistical temperature, not kinetic temperature. Kinetic temperature is always scalar but statistical temperature and statistical entropy in non-transitive systems have circulation, thereby allowing continuous and circular heat flow. Entropy is relative to underlying statistics, in analogy to the Kullback-Leibler divergence in information theory. The H-theorem, limited by assumptions of homogeneity and indistinguishability, only covers statistically homogeneous systems. The theorem does not cover non-transitive, statistically heterogeneous systems combining different distributions such as Maxwell-Boltzmann, biased half-Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. The second law can be preserved if generalized by expressing it in terms of statistical temperature and statistical entropy.

Abstract:
A Faraday isolator is shown to develop a temperature difference between its input and output, but still complies with the second law when all the heat carriers, in this case, photons are homogeneous and indistinguishable. This result is a consequence of the H-theorem which assumes homogeneity and indistinguishability of particles. However, when a thermal feedback path is added, in which heat carriers have physical properties different from the photons in the isolator, then a heterogeneous system is formed not covered by the H-theorem, and the second law is violated.

Abstract:
Gambling is a useful analog to thermodynamics. When
all players use the same dice, loaded or not, on the average no one wins. In thermodynamic
terms, when the system is homogeneous—an assumption made by Boltzmann in his
H-Theorem—entropy never decreases. To reliably win, one must cheat, for
example, use a loaded dice when everyone else uses a fair dice; in
thermodynamics, one must use a heterogeneous statistical strategy. This can be
implemented by combining within a single system, different statistics such as
Maxwell-Boltzmann’s, Fermi-Dirac’s and Bose-Einstein’s. Heterogeneous
statistical systems fall outside of Boltzmann’s assumption and therefore can
bypass the second law. The Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, the equivalent of an
unbiased fair dice, requires a gas column to be isothermal. The Fermi-Dirac and
Bose-Einstein statistics, the equivalent of a loaded biased dice, can generate
spontaneous temperature gradients when a field is present. For example, a
thermoelectric junction can produce a spontaneous temperature gradient, an
experimentally documented phenomenon. A magnetic field parallel to, and an
electric field perpendicular to a surface produce a spontaneous current along
the surface, perpendicular to both fields (Reciprocal Hall Effect).
Experimental data collected by several independent researchers is cited to
support the theory.

Abstract:
The law of mass action, based on maxwellian statistics, cannot explain recent epicatalysis experiments but does when generalized to non-maxwellian statistics. Challenges to the second law are traced to statistical heterogeneity that falls outside assumptions of homogeneity and indistinguishability made by Boltzmann, Gibbs, Tolman and Von Neumann in their H-Theorems. Epicatalysis operates outside these assumptions. Hence, H-Theorems do not apply to it and the second law is bypassed, not broken. There is no contradiction with correctly understood established physics. Other phenomena also based on heterogeneous statistics include non-maxwellian adsorption, the field-induced thermoelectric effect and the reciprocal Hall effect. Elementary particles have well known distributions such as Fermi-Dirac and Bose Einstein, but composite particles such as those involved in chemical reactions, have complex intractable statistics not necessarily maxwellian and best determined by quantum modeling methods. A step by step solution for finding the quantum thermodynamic properties of a quantum composite gas, that avoids the computational requirement of modeling a large number of composite particles includes 1) quantum molecular modeling of a few particles, 2) determining their available microstates, 3) producing their partition function, 4) generating their statistics, and 5) producing the epicatalytic parameter for the generalized law of mass action.

Abstract:
Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used.Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger.In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy.Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.In recent decades, mean population total cholesterol levels have fallen by as much as 1.0 mmol/l (40 mg/dl) in most developed countries. Understanding why is crucial for planning future health strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cholesterol has major public health importance as a powerful cause of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, hence coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Every 1% fall in mean population total cholesterol levels decreases CVD mortality by approximately 2.5% [1]. Thus, recent population cholesterol falls explain up to 25% of the concomitant decreases in cardiovascular mortality in the USA, Canada