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This paper presents the first work of its kind within the confines of the study area. It unravels the distribution of the layers of conductive sand and their depths of interaction between freshwater from fresh sands and saltwater within the conductive layers in the coastal region of Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) around the Gulf of Guinea. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) data whose fidelity was achieved by constraining the data by the available nearby logged borehole information during interpretation was the method applied. In the western region of the study area, the ferruginized and saline water layer is found within the depth range of 22 to 75 m deep. In the northern zone, conductive sandy layer is found within 50 to 210 m and in the eastern zone, the saline and ferruginized sandy layer is found within the depth of 88.5 m and above. Generally, the horizontal and vertical cross sections of the subsoil and the flow regime from water table depths have been delineated. With these information, water can be tapped in the area with caution and the flow direction determined can be used as input parameter in detailed contamination study.
The observations of in-situ spacecraft mission in the
magnetosheath and a region of
thermalized subsonic plasma behind the bow shock reveal a non-linear behaviour
of plasma waves. The study of waves and optics in Physics has given the
understanding of the effect of many waves coming together to form a wave field
or wave packet. The common aspect of such study shows that two or more waves
can superimpose constructively or destructively. The sudden high magnetic field
data in the magnetosheath displays such possibility of superposition of waves.
In this paper, we use the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert
transform (HT) techniques to determine the instantaneous frequencies of low
frequency plasma waves in the magnetosheath. Our analysis has shown that the turbulent
behavior of magnetic field in the magnetosheath within the selected period is
due to superposition of waves.
P-wave and S-wave velocities were obtained from seismic refraction survey in the foundation layer of Eket, the study area. The Tezcan’s approach discussed extensively in the work was used in conjunction with the existing mathematical relations between elastic parameters and seismic refraction velocities for the study of foundation layers in the study area. Based on the results, the elastic constants, allowable bearing pressure/capacity, ultimate bearing capacity and other parameters in Table 1 were determined. The result shows that allowable bearing pressure increases with increase in shear modulus and shear wave velocity. The empirical relation between allowable bearing capacity and shear modulus shows that the allowable bearing capacity increases with depth. Comparing our findings with some ranges of safe allowable bearing capacities of similar non cohesive/granular soils in literatures, the second layer with allowable bearing capacity range of 72.56 - 206.63 kN·m-2 (average = 154.78 kN·m-2) has been considered to be the safe shallow engineering foundation in the study area. The empirical relations between allowable bearing capacities shear modulus and shear wave velocity, in conjunction with the inferred maps, which serve as our findings, will be used as guide in the location of foundations. The inferred ultimate and allowable capacities correlate maximally for the two shallow foundations penetrated by the seismic waves. This perfect correlation reflects the uniqueness of the method.