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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209597 matches for " George G. Dougherty Jr. "
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Homeostatic Imbalance of Purine Catabolism in First-Episode Neuroleptic-Na?ve Patients with Schizophrenia
Jeffrey K. Yao,George G. Dougherty Jr.,Ravinder D. Reddy,Matcheri S. Keshavan,Debra M. Montrose,Wayne R. Matson,Joseph McEvoy,Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009508
Abstract: Purine catabolism may be an unappreciated, but important component of the homeostatic response of mitochondria to oxidant stress. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of oxidative stress in schizophrenia pathology.
Image analysis in medical imaging: recent advances in selected examples
G Dougherty
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.3.e32
David K. Ford,Victor G. Young Jr,George Barany
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812024750
Abstract: The title compound, C4H6O2S4, was prepared by repeating, with subtle improvements, a multi-step route originally described by Mott & Barany [J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 (1984), pp. 2615–2621]. The title compound was obtained for the first time as a crystalline material. The two [(methylsulfanyl)carbonyl]sulfenyl moieties are essentially perpendicular to each other, each approximately planar (r.m.s. deviations of 0.02 and 0.01 ) and with a C—S—S—C torsion angle = 90.99 (6)°, which compares well with the theoretical value of 90°.
Associations between Purine Metabolites and Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia
Jeffrey K. Yao, Ruth Condray, George G. Dougherty, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Debra M. Montrose, Wayne R. Matson, Joseph McEvoy, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Ravinder D. Reddy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042165
Abstract: Background The antioxidant defense system, which is known to be dysregulated in schizophrenia, is closely linked to the dynamics of purine pathway. Thus, alterations in the homeostatic balance in the purine pathway may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings Breakdown products in purine pathway were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a coulometric multi-electrode array system for 25 first-episode neuroleptic-na?ve patients with schizophrenia at baseline and at 4-weeks following initiation of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Associations between these metabolites and clinical and neurological symptoms were examined at both time points. The ratio of uric acid and guanine measured at baseline predicted clinical improvement following four weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. Baseline levels of purine metabolites also predicted clinical and neurological symtpoms recorded at baseline; level of guanosine was associated with degree of clinical thought disturbance, and the ratio of xanthosine to guanosine at baseline predicted degree of impairment in the repetition and sequencing of actions. Conclusions/Significance Findings suggest an association between optimal levels of purine byproducts and dynamics in clinical symptoms and adjustment, as well as in the integrity of sensory and motor processing. Taken together, alterations in purine catabolism may have clinical relevance in schizophrenia pathology.
Lipidomics Reveals Early Metabolic Changes in Subjects with Schizophrenia: Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics
Joseph McEvoy, Rebecca A. Baillie, Hongjie Zhu, Peter Buckley, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Henry A. Nasrallah, George G. Dougherty, Jeffrey K. Yao, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068717
Abstract: There is a critical need for mapping early metabolic changes in schizophrenia to capture failures in regulation of biochemical pathways and networks. This information could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms, trajectory of disease progression, and diagnostic biomarkers. We used a lipidomics platform to measure individual lipid species in 20 drug-na?ve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FE group), 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia that had not adhered to prescribed medications (RE group), and 29 race-matched control subjects without schizophrenia. Lipid metabolic profiles were evaluated and compared between study groups and within groups before and after treatment with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and aripiprazole. Finally, we mapped lipid profiles to n3 and n6 fatty acid synthesis pathways to elucidate which enzymes might be affected by disease and treatment. Compared to controls, the FE group showed significant down-regulation of several n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 within the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid classes. Differences between FE and controls were only observed in the n3 class PUFAs; no differences where noted in n6 class PUFAs. The RE group was not significantly different from controls, although some compositional differences within PUFAs were noted. Drug treatment was able to correct the aberrant PUFA levels noted in FE patients, but changes in re patients were not corrective. Treatment caused increases in both n3 and n6 class lipids. These results supported the hypothesis that phospholipid n3 fatty acid deficits are present early in the course of schizophrenia and tend not to persist throughout its course. These changes in lipid metabolism could indicate a metabolic vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia that occurs early in development of the disease.
Detecting Plants on Railway Embankments  [PDF]
Roger G. Nyberg, Narendra Gupta, Siril Yella, Mark Dougherty
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.63B003
Abstract: This paper investigates problems concerning vegetation along railways and proposes automatic means of detecting ground vegetation. Digital images of railway embankments have been acquired and used for the purpose. The current work mainly proposes two algorithms to be able to achieve automation. Initially a vegetation detection algorithm has been investigated for the purpose of detecting vegetation. Further a rail detection algorithm that is capable of identifying the rails and eventually the valid sampling area has been investigated. Results achieved in the current work report satisfactory (qualitative) detection rates.


Modelling of the ring current in Saturn's magnetosphere
G. Giampieri ,M. K. Dougherty
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: The existence of a ring current inside Saturn's magnetosphere was first suggested by Smith et al. (1980) and Ness et al. (1981, 1982), in order to explain various features in the magnetic field observations from the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Connerney et al. (1983) formalized the equatorial current model, based on previous modelling work of Jupiter's current sheet and estimated its parameters from the two Voyager data sets. Here, we investigate the model further, by reconsidering the data from the two Voyager spacecraft, as well as including the Pioneer 11 flyby data set. First, we obtain, in closed form, an analytic expression for the magnetic field produced by the ring current. We then fit the model to the external field, that is the difference between the observed field and the internal magnetic field, considering all the available data. In general, through our global fit we obtain more accurate parameters, compared to previous models. We point out differences between the model's parameters for the three flybys, and also investigate possible deviations from the axial and planar symmetries assumed in the model. We conclude that an accurate modelling of the Saturnian disk current will require taking into account both of the temporal variations related to the condition of the magnetosphere, as well as non-axisymmetric contributions due to local time effects. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; planetary magnetospheres; plasma sheet) Full Article (PDF, 486 KB) Citation: Giampieri, G. and Dougherty, M. K.: Modelling of the ring current in Saturn's magnetosphere, Ann. Geophys., 22, 653-659, doi:10.5194/angeo-22-653-2004, 2004. Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager XML
Transcriptional Networks in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Christo Venkov,David Plieth,Terri Ni,Amitava Karmaker,Aihua Bian,Alfred L. George Jr,Eric G. Neilson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025354
Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.
Micronutrientes e óxidos de ferro em coprólitos de minhocas produzidos em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Oxisol) sob diferentes sistemas de manejo
BARTZ, Marie Luise Carolina;COSTA, Antonio Carlos Saraiva da;SOUZA Jr., Ivan Granemann de;BROWN, George G.;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: as estruturas biogênicas produzidas pelas minhocas modificam os atributos químicos e mineralógicos do solo. estas altera??es s?o pouco conhecidas em solos altamente intemperizados neotropicais invadidos por minhocas peregrinas e exóticas. este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as altera??es na disponibilidade de micronutrientes e nos óxidos de ferro de um latossolo vermelho distroférrico (lvdf) (oxisol) sob diferentes condi??es de manejo quando invadidos pelas minhocas pontoscolex corethrurus e amynthas gracilis. os micronutrientes analisados foram zinco (zn), cobre (cu), manganês (mn) e ferro (fe). os óxidos de ferro foram analisados através de métodos de dissolu??o seletiva quantificandose as altera??es nos teores de ferro livre (fed) e amorfo (feo) e alumínio e manganês presentes nos óxidos de ferro por substitui??o isomórfica livres (ald e mnd) e amorfos (alo e mno). solo foi coletado sob mata nativa, dois agroecossistemas de plantio direto e uma pastagem, seco ao ar, peneirado e umedecido para a incuba??o das minhocas e posterior obten??o de coprólitos. a análise dos atributos químicos e mineralógicos dos coprólitos mostrou que, de modo geral, foram observados aumentos nos teores de fed e feo nos coprólitos comparados ao solo controle. o oposto foi observado para os teores de ald e alo, havendo diminui??o dos teores nos coprólitos. para os teores de mnd e mno n?o houve diferen?as significativas. os coprólitos concentraram maiores teores de zn, cu e mn, mas tiveram teores mais baixos de fe disponível. a atividade das minhocas influiu, em geral, de forma positiva sobre os teores de micronutrientes e de óxidos de ferro livre e amorfo no lvdf sob diferentes sistemas de manejo estudado.
Marie Luise Carolina Bartz,Antonio Carlos Saraiva da Costa,Ivan Granemann de Souza Jr.,George G. Brown
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: Las estructuras biogénicas producidas por las lombrices modifican los atributos químicos y mineralógicos del suelo. Estas alteraciones son poco conocidas en suelos altamente intemperados neotropicales invadidos por lombrices peregrinas e exóticas. Este trabajo tuvo como objeto evaluar las alteraciones en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en los óxidos de hierro de un Latosol Rojo distroférrico (LVdf) (Oxisol) bajo diferentes condiciones de manejo, al ser invadido por las lombrices Pontoscolex corethrurus y Amynthas gracilis. Los micronutrientes analizados fueron zinc (Zn), cobre (Cu), manganeso (Mn) e hierro (Fe). Los óxidos de hierro fueron analizados a través de métodos de disolución selectiva, siendo cuantificadas las alteraciones en los contenidos de hierro libre (Fed) y amorfo (Feo) y aluminio y manganeso presentes en los óxidos de hierro por sustitución isomórfica libres (Ald y Mnd) y amorfos (Alo y Mno). Suelo fue recolectado bajo bosque nativo, dos agroecosistemas de plantación directa y un pastizal, secado al aire, tamizado y humectado para la incubación de las lombrices y posterior obtención de deyecciones. El análisis de los atributos químicos y mineralógicos de las deyecciones mostró que, por lo general, se observó un incremento del contenido de Fed y Feo en las deyecciones comparado al suelo de control. Lo opuesto fue observado para los contenidos de Ald y Alo, con reducción de los contenidos en las deyecciones. No hubo diferencias significativas en los contenidos de Mnd y Mno. Las deyecciones concentraron mayores contenidos de Zn, Cu y Mn, pero tuvieron contenidos menores de Fe disponible. La actividad de las lombrices influyó, por lo general, en forma positiva sobre los contenidos de micronutrientes y de óxidos de hierro libre y amorfo en el LVdf bajo los diferentes sistemas de manejo estudiados.
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