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Desafios do século XXI à historiografia
Georg Iggers
História da Historiografia , 2010,
Abstract: Este artigo se prop e a examinar os desafios enfrentandos pela historiografia no início do século XXI. Tais desafios resultam de quest es teóricas, políticas e culturais acumuladas desde a segundametade do século XX, e que podem ser resumidas nos seguintes eixos: o problema do giro lingüístico, o surgimento das pesquisas sobre gênero relacionadas aos movimentos feministas, a guinada rumo a uma história universal em meio à permanência dos nacionalismos, a articula opós-moderna da rela o entre história e ciências sociais, e, por fim, o impacto da globaliza o na estrutura o das ciências sociais como forma de conhecimento.
ISO/IEC 27000, 27001 and 27002 for Information Security Management  [PDF]
Georg Disterer
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2013.42011

With the increasing significance of information technology, there is an urgent need for adequate measures of information security. Systematic information security management is one of most important initiatives for IT management. At least since reports about privacy and security breaches, fraudulent accounting practices, and attacks on IT systems appeared in public, organizations have recognized their responsibilities to safeguard physical and information assets. Security standards can be used as guideline or framework to develop and maintain an adequate information security management system (ISMS). The standards ISO/IEC 27000, 27001 and 27002 are international standards that are receiving growing recognition and adoption. They are referred to as “common language of organizations around the world” for information security [1]. With ISO/IEC 27001 companies can have their ISMS certified by a third-party organization and thus show their customers evidence of their security measures.

Towards a Model-Driven IEC 61131-Based Development Process in Industrial Automation  [PDF]
Kleanthis Thramboulidis, Georg Frey
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.44024
Abstract: The IEC 61131-3 standard defines a model and a set of programming languages for the development of industrial automation software. It is widely accepted by industry and most of the commercial tool vendors advertise compliance with it. On the other side, Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proved as a quite successful paradigm in general-purpose computing. This was the motivation for exploiting the benefits of MDD in the industrial automation domain. With the emerging IEC 61131 specification that defines an object-oriented (OO) extension to the function block model, there will be a push to the industry to better exploit the benefits of MDD in automation systems development. This work discusses possible alternatives to integrate the current but also the emerging specification of IEC 61131 in the model driven development process of automation systems. IEC 61499, UML and SysML are considered as possible alternatives to allow the developer to work in higher layers of abstraction than the one supported by IEC 61131 and to more effectively move from requirement specifications into the implementation model of the system.
Dynamic Knowledge—A Century of Evolution  [PDF]
Georg F. Weber
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.34036

The discovery of non-linear systems dynamics has impacted concepts of knowledge to ascribe to it dynamic properties. It has expanded a development that finds its roots more than hundred years ago. Then, certainty was sought in systems of scientific insight. Such absolute certainty was inevitably static as it would be irrevocable once acquired. Although principal limits to the obtainability of knowledge were defined by scientific and philosophical advances from the 1920s through the mid-twentieth century, the knowledge accessible within those boundaries was considered certain, allowing detailed description and prediction within the recognized limits. The trend shifted away from static theories of knowledge with the discovery of the laws of nature underlying non-linear dynamics. The gnoseology of complex systems has built on insights of non-periodic flow and emergent processes to explain the underpinnings of generation and destruction of information and to unify deterministic and indeterministic descriptions of the world. It has thus opened new opportunities for the discourse of doing research.

Prevalence of Wild-Type Butyrylcholinesterase Genotype in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia  [PDF]
Beate Mueller, Georg Adler
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53019
Abstract: Approximately, two-thirds patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported to have homozygous wild-type butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) gene expression. It is associated with a higher rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, which ultimately leads to increase in the levels of BuChE in advanced stages of the disease. Rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, might be of additional benefit in patients with AD with wild-type BuChE allele.
The Fact-Value Dichotomy: A New Light on an Old Problem  [PDF]
Georg F. Weber
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2017.74011
Abstract: Two highly visible, but conflicting concepts of morality have found widespread acceptance in philosophy. Socrates identified goodness with wisdom, holding lack of knowledge responsible for all moral mistakes. David Hume contrasted prescriptive with descriptive judgments, leading him to the conclusion that the former, unlike the latter, are not rationally supportable. It has often been missed that the acceptance of both, Socrates’ teachings and Hume’s law, generates a conflict, as elements of these two concepts contradict each other. It would appear prima facie obvious that mankind has learned from history how to coexist and make societies more just. Hence, there must be an empirical component contained in morals. Today, we have data that are reflective of certain elements of social justice. Measurables like crime rate, range between high and low income brackets, unemployment et cetera can serve as quantitative indicators for individual components that contribute to social justice. Such evidence corroborates at least a restriction on Hume’s stance, if not an outright negation. Because there are rational and empirical elements underlying morality, thought models need to be calibrated against the real world for validation. The discussion, what constitutes progress and social justice, must consult history and research—not ideology—as sources of justification. Philosophy and the sciences must cross-fertilize each other.
NO2 Excited State Properties Revisited: An Effect of Extra Compactified Dimensions  [PDF]
Hans-Georg Weber
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.811103
Abstract: Experiments on NO2 reveal a substructure underlying the optically excited isolated hyperfine structure (hfs) levels of the molecule. This substructure is seen in a change of the symmetry of the excited molecule and is represented by the two “states” \"\" and \"\" of a hfs-level. Optical excitation induces a transition from the ground state \"\" of the molecule to the excited state . However, the molecule evolves from \"\" to \"\" in a time τ0 ≈ 3 μs. Both \"\" and \"\" have the radiative lifetime τR ≈ 40 μs, but \"\" and \"\" differ in the degree of polarization of the fluorescence light. Zeeman coherence in the magnetic sublevels is conserved in the transition \"\"\"\", and optical coherence of \"\" and \"\" is able to affect (inversion effect) the transition \"\"
Family Functioning and Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being in Families with a TBI Parent  [PDF]
Dan Florin Stanescu, Georg Romer
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27104
Abstract: This study aimed at examining the interrelation between family functioning and children’s mental health in families with a brain injured parent. The first goal of this study was to investigate the predictive power of fam- ily functioning for children’s psychological well-being. Second, differential sub-dimensions of family function- ing were examined in respect of their predictive power for children’s psychological adaptation. Third, coping strategies on the family system level were differentiated in terms of their predictive power both for family func- tioning and for children’s psychosocial adjustment. 58 families were included in the current study. The following instruments were used: Youth Self Report, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales, and Family Assessment Device. Family dysfunction as a whole positively correlates with psychological symptoms of adolescents; four sub-dimensions of family functioning predicted children’s problems, namely affective responsiveness, affective involvement, roles, and communication. This research is all the more informative as the studies on the subject are nearly inexistent, and since it focuses on a category of utmost value—children.
Cytokine induced molecular mechanisms of bone/cartilage metabolism
Georg Schett
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3417
Pathophysiology of subchondral bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis
Georg Schett
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3721
Abstract: Bone is subject to a continuous remodeling process which allows an ideal adaptation to the individual demands throughout life. This remodeling process is based an interplay between bone forming osteoblasts and the bone resorbing osteoclasts. Several conditions alter this balance, among them the drop of estrogens levels after menopause is the most well known factor, which leads to enhanced bone resorption and bone loss. Interestingly, all different forms of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel disease also interfere with the bone remodeling process and precipitate bone loss and increased fracture risk.To study this interaction between immune activation/inflammation and the skeletal system has become a novel research discipline called osteoimmunology. This field has gained insights into the mechanism of inflammatory bone loss, in particular of how inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha, IL1 or IL6 foster bone resorption and inhibit bone formation, resulting in an imbalance of bone homeostasis and thereby precipitating bone loss. Therapeutic inhibition of cytokines has yields profound changes architecture in arthritis patients and protects the bone and in part also the articular cartilage. Inflammatory cytokines particularly enhance bone loss by activation of osteoclast differentiation factors such as MCSF and RANK ligand and by molecules which interfere with bone formation such as DKK1 and sclerostin.The insights into molecular regulation of bone remodelling by the immune system are thus of key interest in better understanding inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and to shape novel therapeutic concepts. Research in the field of osteoimmunology has a strong translational approach and directly affects patients suffering from inflammatory diseases, in particular arthritis, in aiming to prevent skeletal damage and loss of physical function.
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