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With the increasing significance of information technology, there is
an urgent need for adequate measures of information security.
Systematic information security management is one of most important initiatives
for IT management. At least since reports about privacy and security breaches,
fraudulent accounting practices, and attacks on IT systems appeared
in public, organizations have recognized their responsibilities to safeguard
physical and information assets. Security standards can be used as guideline or
framework to develop and maintain an adequate information security management
system (ISMS). The standards ISO/IEC 27000, 27001 and 27002 are international
standards that are receiving growing recognition and adoption. They are
referred to as “common language of organizations around the world” for
information security . With ISO/IEC 27001 companies can have their ISMS
certified by a third-party organization and thus show their customers evidence
of their security measures.
The discovery of non-linear systems dynamics has impacted concepts of knowledge to ascribe to it dynamic properties. It has expanded a development that finds its roots more than hundred years ago. Then, certainty was sought in systems of scientific insight. Such absolute certainty was inevitably static as it would be irrevocable once acquired. Although principal limits to the obtainability of knowledge were defined by scientific and philosophical advances from the 1920s through the mid-twentieth century, the knowledge accessible within those boundaries was considered certain, allowing detailed description and prediction within the recognized limits. The trend shifted away from static theories of knowledge with the discovery of the laws of nature underlying non-linear dynamics. The gnoseology of complex systems has built on insights of non-periodic flow and emergent processes to explain the underpinnings of generation and destruction of information and to unify deterministic and indeterministic descriptions of the world. It has thus opened new opportunities for the discourse of doing research.