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Deshidratación osmótica de prismas de camote, manzana y papa
Genina-Soto,Próspero; Altamirano-Morales,Silvia Beatriz;
Interciencia , 2005,
Abstract: total mass changes of osmosed sweet potatoes (ipomea batatas) prisms were obtained by osmotic dehydration processes. square section prisms of three different thicknesses were subjected to osmotic dehydration using sucrose solutions of two different concentrations and two different temperatures. for comparison purposes, apple and potato prisms of only one thickness were subjected to the same processes.
The Technique of Enhancing the Transdermal Penetration for the Gold Nanoparticles and Perspectives of Application  [PDF]
Radik M. Khayrullin, Georgiy S. Terentyuk, Maria V. Savenkova, Elina A. Genina
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46A1008

Background: In recent years, worldwide attention of researchers focused on the practical implementation of nanoscale materials in biomedical technology. It’s proved that intravenous injected gold nanoparticles are accumulated in tumor tissues. However, when gold nanoparticles injected intravenously negative effects in the internal organs of experimental animals are observed. 160 nm diameter particles affect the wall of blood vessels, resulting in vacuolar degeneration of endothelial cells. Particles with a diameter of 50 nm lead to more expressed changes in the internal organs. Injection of the particles diameter of 15 nm causes moderate degeneration of parenchymal cells of internal organs and circulatory disorders. Materials and Methods: In current research, for the first time using the methods of experimental pathology the permeability of intact and damaged skin for nanoscale gold particles in combination with organosulfur compounds—imethylsulfoxide and tiofansulfoxide were studied. We used 140 male outbred white rats with an average weight 150 - 200 grams. All the animals were divided into one control and three experimental groups. Results: Laser microperforation skin with ultrasound treatment can provide good skin permeability, but in contrast to use of agents with organosulfur compounds inflammatory reaction, the destruction of superficial and deep skin tissue structural elements are observed. The comparative efficacy of dimethylsulfoxide and tiofansulfoxide for transdermal permeability of gold nanoparticles was studied. It’s proved that in topical application solution of nanoparticles with organosulfur compounds negative effects of the accumulation of nanoparticles in the internal organs, disorders of organ and tissue microcirculation, development in the degenerative changes are not observed. We found that the depth of penetration of damaged skin (contact dermatitis) for the gold nanoparticles in combination with organosulfur compounds, and ultrasound exposure is substantially higher than the penetration of intact skin.

Optical Clearing of Cranial Bone
Elina A. Genina,Alexey N. Bashkatov,Valery V. Tuchin
Advances in Optical Technologies , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/267867
Abstract: We present experimental results on optical properties of cranial bone controlled by administration of propylene glycol and glycerol. Both transmittance and reflectance spectra of human and porcine cranial bone in vitro were measured. For estimation of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the bone, the inverse adding-doubling method was used. The decrease of reflectance of the samples under action of the immersion agents was demonstrated. The experiments have shown that administration of the immersion liquids allows for effective controlling of tissue optical characteristics that makes bone more transparent, thereby increasing the ability of light penetration through the tissue. The presented results can be used in developing of functional imaging techniques, including OCT.
Using Ion-Selective Electrodes to Study the Drug Release from Porous Cellulose Matrices
Hossein Vakili,Natalja Genina,Henrik Ehlers,Johan Bobacka,Niklas Sandler
Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics4030366
Abstract: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs), responding to propranolol hydrochloride (Pr +) and lidocaine hydrochloride (Ld +) cations as the model drugs with potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as the ion exchanger, were studied. Different drug-polymer solutions were prepared with the model drugs, using different blend ratios of ethylcellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). Two different solid dosage forms were used. Polymer films were produced by solvent casting method and drug containing porous cellulose samples were prepared by depositing the drug-polymer solutions onto filter paper substrates. The quality of the electrodes and the release profile of Pr + and Ld + were investigated with the potentiometric method. The results were compared to UV spectrophotometry. The electrodes were found to be sensitive, precise and functional with a Nernstian behavior over the range of 1.0 × 10 ?3–3.1 × 10 ?6 M (9.2 × 10 ?4–3.0 × 10 ?1 mg/mL) and 1 × 10 ?3–2 × 10 ?6 M (5.4 × 10 ?4–2.7 × 10 ?1 mg/mL) at 25 °C for Pr + and Ld + sensitive electrodes, respectively. The dynamic response time for the electrodes was less than 10 s. The Pr + release from porous filter paper was always higher than its equivalent film formulation. Also, lidocaine had higher and faster release from the samples with higher drug concentration. The comparison of the two analytical methods showed near identical results. The ISEs provided a powerful and flexible alternative to UV method in determination of drug release from porous cellulose substrates in a small scale dissolution testing.
Josep Bonil,Genina Calafell,Jesús Granados,Mercè Junyent
Abstract: Se presenta una investigación de carácter cualitativo que pretende dar respuestas al diagnóstico compartido sobre el déficit en la formación de los equipos educativos en relación a la ambientalización curricular. Presentamos un modelo de formación que se ha implementado en una actividad formativadirigida a docentes de educación primaria y secundaria y a asesores en educación ambiental pertenecientes a la Xarxa d' Escoles per a la Sostenibilitat de Catalunya. El modelo tiene como finalidad salvar la distancia entre el planteamiento ideológico de la educación ambiental y su concreción práctica en las aulas que a menudo constituye un obstáculo para la ambientalización curricular. Para ello la propuesta formativa se fundamenta en el concepto de idea de alto nivel y su conexión con la práctica que se ha concretado en la determinación de cuatro esferas:conceptual, creativa, didáctica y de investigación. El trabajo presentado concluye que el modelo propuesto es una forma coherente, sólida y rigurosade abordar la ambientalización curricular. El estudio además ha permitido identificar, entre el profesorado participante en la actividad formativa, cuatro perfiles en función del grado de transferibilidad del modelo a su contexto profesional: propulsor, catalizador, refuerzo cognitivo y refuerzo emocional. Esta categorización ofrece elementos que permiten explorar sobre que componentes, tanto a nivel de docente como de asesoría, debemos tener en consideración y cuáles debemos superar para alcanzar un alto nivel de transferencia de la propuesta formativa en pro de mejorar el nivel de ambientalización curricular.
E. V. Koblova,T. G. Kamenskikh,A. N. Bashkatov,E. A. Genina
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: Based on the experimental data obtained in vivo from digital analysis of color images of human irises, the mean melanin content in human eye irises has been estimated. For registration of color images the digital camera Olympus C-5060 has been used. The images have been obtained from irises of healthy volunteers as well as from irises of patients with open-angle glaucoma. The computer program has been developed for digital analysis of the images. The result has been useful for development of novel methods and optimization of already existing ones for non-invasive glaucoma diagnostics.
Nonequilibrium processes from Generalised Langevin Equations: realistic nanoscale systems connected to two thermal baths
H. Ness,A. Genina,L. Stella,C. D. Lorenz,L. Kantorovich
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We extend the Generalised Langevin Equation (GLE) method [Phys. Rev. B 89, 134303 (2014)] to model a central classical region connected to two realistic thermal baths at two different temperatures. In such nonequilibrium conditions a heat flow is established, via the central system, in between the two baths. The GLE-2B (GLE two baths) scheme permits us to have a realistic description of both the dissipative central system and its surrounding baths. Following the original GLE approach, the extended Langevin dynamics scheme is modified to take into account two sets of auxiliary degrees of freedom corresponding to the mapping of the vibrational properties of each bath. These auxiliary variables are then used to solve the non-Markovian dissipative dynamics of the central region. The resulting algorithm is used to study a model of a short Al nanowire connected to two baths. The results of the simulations using the GLE-2B approach are compared to the results of other simulations that were carried out using standard thermostatting approaches (based on Markovian Langevin and Nose-Hoover thermostats). We concentrate on the steady state regime and study the establishment of a local temperature profile within the system when the two bath temperatures are different. Our results for the temperature profiles are interpreted in terms of the properties of integrable versus non-integrable mechanical systems, in agreement with earlier studies. In terms of transport properties, a ballistic thermal conductor has an infinite conductance (in the thermodynamic limit) and, therefore, there is no temperature gradient across the central region. Whenever the system presents some form of thermal resistance (finite conductance) due to anharmonic effects, disorder, or extra random processes, a temperature gradient is built up.
The Enhancement of Confocal Images of Tissues at Bulk Optical Immersion
I. V. Meglinski,D. Y. Churmakov,A. N. Bashkatov,E. A. Genina,V. V. Tuchin
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: The purpose of the present work is a theoretical examination of how localized skin-tissue dehydration affects the depth of the confocal probing and what depth of effective detection can be reached with the chemical administration of skin tissues. A semi-infinite multilayer Monte Carlo model is used to estimate spatial localization of the output signal offered by a confocal probe. A solution of glycerol is taken in the capacity of innocuous osmotic agent. Diffusion of this bio-compatible chemical agent into the skin temporarily pushes water out of the tissues and results in the matching of the refractive indices of skin structural elements. This temporarily decreases scattering and increases transparency of topical skin layers, which allows for unrestricted light to permeate deeper into the skin. The results of simulation show that signal spatial localization offered by a confocal probe in the skin tissues during their clearing is usable for the monitoring of deep reticular dermis and improving the image contrast and spatial resolution. A discussion of the optical properties of skin tissues and their changes due to diffusion of glycerol into the skin is given. Optical properties of tissues and their changes due to chemical administration are estimated based on the results of experimental in vitro study with rat and human skin.
Miltefosina oral para el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis
Soto,Jaime; Soto,Paula;
Biomédica , 2006,
Abstract: reduced efficacy, difficulties of administration and increasing frequency and severity of adverse events of pentavalent antimony have stimulated the quest for new anti-leishmanial drugs. several clinical studies in latin america testing injectable, oral and topical anti-leishmanial drugs have yielded inconsistent results. since 1998 indian researchers have conducted clinical trials evaluating hexadecylphosphocoline (miltefosine) in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in 1999 clinical studies were initiated in colombia in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. up to date, more than 2.500 patients have been treated with miltefosine in india (visceral by l. donovani) and colombia (cutaneous caused by l. panamensis) obtaining cure rates over 91% when a dose of 2.5 mg / kg / day during 28 days was used, with no difference between na?ve and relapsing patients. in guatemala the overall cure rate for patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis was 53% (33% for l. braziliensis; 60% for l. mexicana) while in afghanistan the cure rate of patients with l. tropica was 63%. patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal disease and co-infected with hiv have been treated with initial success; however these diseases have frequent relapses. mild gastrointestinal events (i.e. nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) were present in 35 to 60% of patients included in clinical trials and 10 to 20% had a mild increase in transaminases and creatinine levels. miltefosine, originally an antineoplastic drug, has a potent leishmanicidal activity as consequence of its interference in parasite metabolic pathways and the induction of apoptosis, has demonstrated efficacy against l. donovani visceral disease and l. panamensis cutaneous disease. now, miltefosine must demonstrate its efficacy against other species associated with diverse clinical presentations.
Estado actual y futuro de la terapia anti-leishmaniásica en Colombia
Soto,Jaime; Soto,Paula;
Biomédica , 2006,
Abstract: pentavalent antimonials are the first choice to treat leishmaniasis in colombia. however, a 600% increase in the total dose has been necessary in order to maintain their efficacy. cure rates varying between 93 and 25% can reflect differences in parasite susceptibility, but are more likely secondary to deficiencies in compliance with treatment guidelines. we review the current situation of efficacy and use of pentavalent antimony compounds, amphotericin b, pentamidine and miltefosine and attempt a projection for the next following years. to determine the real situation of response to antileishmanial drugs and to extend their useful life, the establishment of surveillance mechanisms to cover all factors involved is necessary. a sentinel site surveillance strategy to allow punctual observations in time, in specific geographical areas and in particular local situations, is proposed.
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