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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18 matches for " Gehendra Mahara "
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Space-Time Cluster Analysis of Tuberculosis Incidence in Beijing, China  [PDF]
Gehendra Mahara, Mina Karki, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.64027
Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the top killer diseases in the globe. The aim of this study was to explore the geographic distribution patterns and clustering characteristics of the disease incidence in terms of both space and time with high relative risk locations for tuberculosis incidence in Beijing area. A retrospective space-time clustering analysis was conducted at the districts level in Beijing area based on reported cases of sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from 2005 to 2014. Global and local Moran’s I, autocorrelation analysis along with Ord (Gi*) statistics was applied to detect spatial patterns and the hotspot of TB incidence. Furthermore, the Kuldorff’s scan statistics were used to analyze space-time clusters. A total of 40,878 TB cases were reported in Beijing from 2005 to 2014. The annual average incidence rate was 22.11 per 100,000 populations (ranged from 16.55 to 25.71). The seasonal incidence occurred from March to July until late autumn. A higher relative risk area for TB incidence was mainly detected in urban and some rural districts of Beijing. The significant most likely space-time clusters and secondary clusters of TB incidence were scattered diversely in Beijing districts in each study year. The risk population was mainly scattered in urban and dense populated districts, including in few rural districts.
Calculation of the Entropy Balance Equation in a Non-equilibrium Reaction-diffusion System
Hitoshi Mahara,Tomohiko Yamaguchi
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12122436
Abstract: In this article, we discuss the relationships between thermodynamic quantities and the spatial pattern in a reaction-diffusion model based on the reversible Gray-Scott model. This model is introduced for calculation of the entropy production in a reaction-diffusion system. First, we show the relationship between entropy production and pattern formation, and suggest that the entropy production could be an index of different patterns. Then the entropy production is applied for searching the parameter region where the pattern is bistable. Moreover, the entropy change is calculated by using the relative chemical potential that is defined based on the equilibrium state and not on the standard chemical potential. The results of the entropy change are consistent with the intrinsic property of the entropy, therefore, the entropy change calculated in this way may be regarded as an appropriate quantity for the discussion of the thermodynamic properties in a non equilibrium system.
Management of posterior cruciate ligament avulsion by cannulated screw fixation
A Lamichhane,DP Mahara
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v34i3.8914
Abstract: Introduction: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. The PCL also plays a role as a central axis controlling and imparting rotational stability to the knee. The most effective management of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries remains unclear and the natural history of untreated PCL injuries is controversial. The need for surgical repair of displaced bony PCL avulsions is less controversial. Here we present repair of PCL avulsion by screw fixation. Methods: There were total of 18 patients (Male 12 and Female 6) operated for isolated PCL avulsion from tibia during the period from 2002 to 2010. Preoperative evaluation was done clinically and radiologically .MRI was advised for suspected other ligaments and meniscal injuries. Patients with other ligaments and meniscal injury were not included in this series. All cases operated by simplified approach described by Burks and Schaffer. Avulsed fragment was reduced and xed with 4 mm a cannulated screw. Evaluation of the patients were done clinically, radilologically and using functional scale of Tegner-Lysholm. Results: Out of 18 patients, 12 patients were male and 6 patients were female. Average age of the patients was 29yrs (range 18-47 yrs). Average period of follow up was 31 months (ranging 12 - 52 m). Range of movement was found full in all patients at the last follow up. Grade 1-2 laxity was found in 8 patients but subjectively they were not aware of the laxity. Average Lysholm score was 91 (range 87-97). Conclusion: Improvised approach by Burk and Schaffer is safer and easier than the classical one. Open reduction and fixation with cannulated screw is one of the excellent techniques for tibial avulsion of posterior cruciate ligament. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v34i3.8914 Journal of Institute of Medicine, December, 2012; 34:28-31
Osteoporosis Self Assessment Tool for Asian (OSTA) Index in Comparison to Quantitative Ultrasound of the Calcaneal in Predicting Low Bone Density.
Binod Sherchan,Arjun Lamichhane,Deepak Prakash Mahara
Nepal Orthopaedic Association Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/noaj.v3i2.9524
Abstract: Introduction: Osteoporosis represent a worldwide public health problem, frequently resulting in fractures and leading to psychological problem, social consequences, functional limitation and poor quality of life. So it is important to identify those people who have high risk of osteoporosis, in order to reduce the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) index is a simple tool based on age and body weight. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is another simple and low-cost instrument used to prescreen osteoporotic subjects. The aim of this study was to correlate between these two screening methods and to validate usefulness of Osteoporosis self assessment tool for Asian ( OSTA) in comparison with QUS of the calcaneum for the prediction of low bone density in Nepalese women.
Analgesic Effect of Intraarticular Tramadol with Morphine after Arthroscopic Knee Surgery
Hussain Faisal,Arjun Lamichhane,Deepak Mahara
Nepal Orthopaedic Association Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/noaj.v3i1.9320
Abstract: Introduction: Post-operative improved pain control of patients has made arthroscopy as a day care procedure, reducing patient’s expenses and hospital staffs work load. Various analgesic drugs have been administered into the joint following Arthroscopy. Intra-articular injection of morphine has been practiced in many centres all over the world. We aimed to compare the efficacy of intra-articular tramadol and morphine. Tramadol is an opioid drug with similar analgesic properties like morphine. Tramadol unlike morphine is readily available over the counter not being abused and has more favourable side effects. Methods: It was a prospectively randomized double-blind study in which sixty patients having elective arthroscopic surgery of the knee were randomized into two groups. Group A (Tramadol Group) received intra-articular tramadol 50mg and Group B (Morphine Group) received morphine 5mg in equivalent volumes. Post-operative pain using Visual Analogue Score (VAS) between 0 and 10, (0 no pain to 10 worst pain) requirement of first analgesic, and incidence of side effects were recorded postoperatively at intervals of 3,4,5,6 and 24 hours. Results: The assessment of VAS score among the two groups in 3,4,5,6 and 24 hours of IA injection showed a p value of 0.349, 0.807, 0.676, 0.271 and 0.163 respectively, suggesting non significant difference in two groups. There was statistically significant result (p=0.005) for request of first analgesia (Ibuprofen 400mg+ Paracetalmol 500mg) at 6 hours of IA injection with tramadol group, requiring less analgesics. There are no other clinically important differences between the groups, including preoperative duration of symptoms, postoperative pain scores and side effects irrespective of the diagnosis and the procedure performed. Conclusion: 50 mg IA tramadol provides analgesia equivalent to 5 mg IA morphine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/noaj.v3i1.9320 Nepal Orthopedic Association Journal 2013 Vol.3(1): 14-18
Role of Oxidative Stress in Transformation Induced by Metal Mixture
Silva-Aguilar Martín,Rojas Emilio,Valverde Mahara
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/935160
Abstract: Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.
DNA-AP sites generation by Etoposide in whole blood cells
Emilio Rojas, Patricia Mussali, Efrain Tovar, Mahara Valverde
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-398
Abstract: To determine etoposide genotoxicity, we employed Comet assay in two alkaline versions. To evaluate single strand breaks and delay repair sites we use pH 12.3 conditions and pH >13 to evidence alkali labile sites. With the purpose to quantified apurinic or apyrimidine (AP) sites we employed a specific restriction enzyme. Etoposide effects were determined on whole blood cells cultured in absence or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) treated during 2 and 24 hours of cultured.Alkaline (pH > 13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay experiments revealed etoposide-induced increases in DNA damage in phytohemaglutinine (PHA)-stimulated blood and non-stimulated blood cells. When the assay was performed at a less alkaline pH, 12.3, we observed DNA damage in PHA-stimulated blood cells consistent with the existence of alkali labile sites (ALSs). In an effort to elucidate the molecular events underlying this result, we applied exonuclease III (Exo III) in conjunction with a SCGE assay, enabling detection of DNA-AP sites along the genome. More DNA AP-sites were revealed by Exo III and ALSs were recognized by the SCGE assay only in the non-stimulated blood cells treated with etoposide.Our results indicate that etoposide induces DNA damage specifically at DNA-AP sites in quiescent blood cells. This effect could be involved in the development of secondary malignancies associated with etoposide chemotherapy.In the last decade, etoposide (also known as VP-16213) has been one of the most commonly used agents for treating a number of malignancies. Etoposide is a semi-synthetic derivative of epipodophyllotoxin derived from the plant Podophyllum peltatum [1-3]. Its primary intracellular target, topoisomerase II, alters DNA topology by passing an intact double helix through a transient double stranded break that it generates in a separate nucleic acid segment [4-6].Topoisomerase II is required to resolve knots and tangles in the genetic material that are produced by physiological
The application of single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay to human monitoring studies
Valverde Mahara,Ostrosky-Wegman Patricia,Rojas Emilio,Fortoul Teresa
Salud Pública de México , 1999,
Abstract: Objective. In the search of new human genotoxic biomarkers, the single cell gel electrophoresis assay has been proposed as a sensible alternative. Material and methods. This technique detects principally single strand breaks as well as alkali-labile and repair-retarded sites. Results. Herein we present our experience using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay in human population studies, both occupationally and environmentally exposed. Conclusions. We discuss the assay feasibility as a genotoxic biomarker.
New dating method: Groundwater residence time estimated from the 4He accumulation rate calibrated by using cosmogenic and subsurface-produced 36Cl
Mahara Y.,Ohta T.,Kubota T.,Miyakawa K.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122403002
Abstract: Groundwater contains dissolved He, and its concentration increases with the residence time of the groundwater. Thus, if the 4He accumulation rate is constant, the dissolved 4He concentration in ground-water is equivalent to the residence time. Since accumulation mechanisms are not easily separated in the field, we estimate the total He accumulation rate during the half-life of 36Cl (3.01 × 105 years). We estimated the 4He accumulation rate, calibrated using both cosmogenic and subsurface-produced 36Cl, in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, and the subsurface-produced 36Cl increase at the sp Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. 4He accumulation rates range from (1.9±0.3) × 10 11 to (15±6) × 10 11 ccSTP·cm 3·y 1 in GAB and (1.8 ±0.7) × 10 8 ccSTP·cm 3·y 1 at sp . We confirmed a ground-water flow with a residence time of 0.7-1.06 Ma in GAB and stagnant groundwater with the long residence time of 4.5 Ma at sp . Therefore, the groundwater residence time can be deduced from the dissolved 4He concentration and the 4He accumulation rate calibrated by 36Cl, provided that 4He accumulation, groundwater flow, and other geo-environmental conditions have remained unchanged for the required amount of geological time.
228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in groundwater around Mount Fuji, Japan
Ohta Tomoko,Mahara Yasunori,Miyakawa Kimio,Kubota Takumi
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122403003
Abstract: We estimated the groundwater age from 228Ra/226Ra ratios in young groundwater and relevant rocks in the volcanic area of the Kakitagawa River around Mount Fuji, Japan, and compared our results with those from 3H/3He age determination. The groundwater residence time estimated from the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in groundwater and relevant rocks agreed well with the 3H/3He age, suggesting that the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of groundwater can be used to estimate residence time of young groundwater in volcanic areas.
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