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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 428 matches for " Gaur Sunanda "
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Use of anti-retrovirals in pediatric HIV infection
Gaur Sunanda
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Protease inhibitor associated mutations compromise the efficacy of therapy in human immunodeficiency virus – 1 (HIV-1) infected pediatric patients: a cross-sectional study
Amisha Malhotra, Sunanda Gaur, Patricia Whitley-Williams, Caitlin Loomis, Anna Petrova
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-4-15
Abstract: The few studies on HIV-1 mutagenesis in HIV infected children have not evaluated the impact of HIV-1 mutations on the clinical, virological and immunological presentation of HIV disease that is fundamental to optimizing the treatment regimens for these patients.A cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the impact of treatment regimens and resistance mutation patterns on the clinical, virological, and immunological presentation of HIV disease in 41 children (25 male and 16 female) at the Robert Wood Johnson Pediatric AIDS Program in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The study participants were symptomatic and had preceding treatment history with combined ARV regimens including protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Fifteen (36.6%) children were treated with NRTI+NNRTI+ PI, 6 (14.6%) with NRTI+NNRTIs, 13 (31.7%) with NRTI+PIs, and the remaining 7 (17.1%) received NRTIs only.Combined ARV regimens did not significantly influence the incidence of NRTI and NNRTI associated mutations. The duration of ARV therapy and the child's age had no significant impact on the ARV related mutations. The clinico-immunological presentation of the HIV disease was not associated with ARV treatment regimens or number of resistance mutations. However, primary mutations in the protease (PR) gene increased the likelihood of plasma viral load (PVL) ≥ 10,000 copies/mL irrespective of the child's age, duration of ARV therapy, presence of NRTI and NNRTI mutation. Viremia ≥ 10,000 copies/mL was recorded in almost all the children with primary mutations in the PR region (n = 12/13, 92.3%) as compared with only 50.0% (n = 14/28) of HIV infected children without (PR-), P < 0.008. However, CD-4 T cells were not affected by the mutations in the PR gene of the HIV-1 isolates.Primary PR resistance mutations significantly increase the likelihood for high viral replication in pediatric patients with modera
Physicochemical and Biochemical Reclamation of Soil through Secondary Succession  [PDF]
Kamala Haripal, Sunanda Sahoo
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.35028

Conversion of forest to agricultural fields has become a common practice in India. Very often these fields have been abandoned due to lack of sustainable production. In course of time these fallow lands undergo natural secondary succession. Present study was carried out to find out the restoration of soil physicochemical and biochemical properties in a chronosequence of 2 yr, 4 yr, 6 yr, 11 yr, and 15 yr fallow lands. Soil enzyme activities play key roles in the biochemical functioning of soils, including soil organic matter formation and degradation, nutrient cycling, and reflect the change in soil management and land use. There was gradual improvement in the physical condition and nutrient status along with increase in soil amylase, cellulase, dehydrogenase, phophatase, and urease activity in the present study with the progress of fallow age which indicates the importance of natural secondary succession in soil restoration. However the PCA analysis indicated that natural vegetational succession could reclaim the soil quality and promote ecosystem restoration but it required a long time under the present local climatic condition.

Crash Severity Analysis of Single Vehicle Run-off-Road Crashes  [PDF]
Sunanda Dissanayake, Uttara Roy
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2014.41001

Run-off-road crashes in the United States have become a major cause of serious injuries and fatalities. A significant portion of run-off-road crashes are single vehicle crashes that occur due to collisions with fixed objects and overturning. These crashes typically tend to be more severe than other types of crashes. Single vehicle run-off-road crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2008 were extracted from Kansas Accident Reporting System (KARS) database to identify the important factors that affected their severity. Different driver, vehicle, road, crash, and environment related factors that influence crash severity are identified by using binary logit models. Three models were developed to take different levels of crash severity as the response variables. The first model taking fatal or incapacitating crashes as the response variable seems to better fit the data than the other two developed models. The variables that were found to increase the probability of run-off-road crash severity are driver related factors such as driver ejection, being an older driver, alcohol involvement, license state, driver being at fault, medical condition of the driver; road related factors such as speed, asphalt road surface, dry road condition; time related factors such as crashes occurring between 6 pm and midnight; environment related factors such as daylight; vehicle related factors such as being an SUV, motorcycles, vehicle getting

An Alternative Regression-Based Approach to Estimate the Crash Modification Factors of Multiple Treatments Using Before-and-After Data  [PDF]
Uditha Galgamuwa, Sunanda Dissanayake
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2018.84015
Abstract: Before-and-after methods have been effectively used in the road safety studies to estimate Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) of individual treatments as well as the multiple treatments on roadways. Since the common practice is to apply multiple treatments on road segments, it is important to have a method to estimate CMFs of individual treatment so that the effect of each treatment towards improving the road safety can be identified. Even though there are methods introduced by researchers to combine multiple CMFs or to isolate the safety effectiveness of individual treatment from CMFs developed for multiple treatments, those methods have to be tested before using them. This study considered two multiple treatments namely 1) Safety edge with lane widening 2) Adding 2 ft paved shoulders with shoulder rumble strips and/or asphalt resurfacing. The objectives of this research are to propose a regression-based method to estimate individual CMFs estimate CMFs using before-and-after Empirical Bayes method and compare the results. The results showed that having large sample size gives accurate predictions with smaller standard error and p-values of the considered treatments. Also, results obtained from regression method are similar to the EB method even though the values are not exactly the same. Finally, it was seen that the safety edge treatment reduces crashes by 15% - 25% and adding 2 ft shoulders with rumble strips reduces crashes by 25% - 49%.
Obstetric anaesthesia: Widening horizons?
Gupta Sunanda
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia , 2010,
Orthogonal main effect plans on blocks of small size
Sunanda Bagchi
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper we define the concept of orthogonality between two factors "through another factor". Exploiting this property we have been able to obtain orthogonal main effect plans (OMEP) on non-orthogonal blocks requiring considerably smaller number of blocks than the existing methods. As particular cases, we have been able to accomodate four six-level factors on 8 blocks of size 4 each using the first method and on 24 runs using the second.
Inter-class orthogonal main effect plans for asymmetrical experiments
Sunanda Bagchi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we construct `inter-class orthogonal' main effect plans (MEP) for asymmetrical experiments. In such a plan, a factor is orthogonal to all others except possibly the ones in its own class. We have also defined the concept of "partial orthogonality" between a pair of factors. In many of our plans, "partial orthogonality" has been achieved when (total) orthogonality is not possible due to divisibility or any other restriction. We present a method of obtaining `inter-class orthogonal' MEPs. Using this method and also a method of `cut and paste' we have obtained several series of `inter-class orthogonal' MEPs. Interestingly some of these happen to be orthogonal MEP (OMEP), for example we have constructed an OMEP for a $3^{30}$ experiment on 64 runs. Further, many of the `inter-class orthogonal' MEPs are `almost orthogonal' in the sense that each factor is orthogonal to all others except possibly one. In many of the other MEPs factors are "orthogonal through another factor", thus leading to simplification in the analysis. Plans of small size ($\leq 15$ runs) are also constructed by ad-hoc methods. Finally, we present a user-friendly computational method for analysing data obtained from any general factorial design.
Perfect Graeco-Latin balanced incomplete block designs and related designs
Sunanda Bagchi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Main effect plans orthogonal through the block factor (POTB) have been defined and a few series of them have been constructed in Bagchi (2010). These plans are very closely related to the `mutually orthogonal balanced nested row-column designs' of Morgan and Uddin (1996) and many other combinatorial designs in the literature with different names like `BIBDs for two sets of treatment', `Graeco-Latin designs' and `PERGOLAs'. In fact all of them may be viewed as POTBs satisfying one or more additional conditions, making them `optimal'. However, the PERGOLAs are defined to satisfy an additional property, without which also it is optimal. Interestingly, this additional property is satisfied by all the hitherto known examples of POTBs, even when their definitions do not demand it. In this paper we present direct and recursive constructions of POTBs. In the process we have constructed one design which seems to be the first example of an `optimal' two-factor POTB which is not a PERGOLA (see Theorem \ref {POTB2}).
Beam Dynamics and Electromagnetic Design Studies of 3 MeV RFQ for SNS Programme  [PDF]
Rahul Gaur, Purushottam Shrivastava
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29068
Abstract: The physics design of a 3 MeV, 30 mA, 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is done for the future Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS) project at RRCAT, India. The beam dynamics design of RFQ and the error analysis of the input beam parameters are done by using standard beam dynamics code PARMTEQM. The electromagnetic stu-dies for the two-dimensional and three-dimensional cavity design are performed using computer codes SUPERFISH and CST Microwave Studio. The physics design of RFQ consisting of the beam dynamics design near the beam axis and the electromagnetic design for the RFQ resonator is described here.
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