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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 195075 matches for " Gary G. Adams "
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Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on expansion, proliferation and insulin-producing-cell differentiation of ARIP cells  [PDF]
Gary G. Adams, Yu-Xin Cui
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.24035
Abstract: Regeneration of transplantable pancreatic islet cells has been considered to be a promising alternative therapy for type 1 diabetes. Re-search has suggested that adult pancreatic stem and progenitor cells can be derived into insulin-producing cells or cultivated islet-like clusters given appropriate stimulating condi- tions. In this study we explored the effect of selective extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on the potential of insulin-producing cell differen-tiation using ARIP cells, an adult rat pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line, as a model in vitro. Quantitative single cell morphology analysis indicated that all the four ECM proteins we have used (type I collagen, laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin) increased the single cell area and diameter of ARIP cells. In addition, se-rum-free cell cultivation was dependent on cell density and particular components; and serum could be replaced when systematic optimisa-tion could be performed. Surface treated with laminin was shown to be able to enhance overall cell expansion in the presence of de-fined serum-free medium conditions. Collagen treated surfaces enhanced insulin production in the presence of GLP-1 although the insulin gene expression was however weak accord-ingly. Our results suggest that selective ECM proteins have effects on single cell morphol-ogy, adhesion and proliferation of ARIP cells. These ECM molecules however do not have a potent effect on the insulin-producing cell dif-ferentiation potential of ARIP cells even com-bining with GLP-1.
“Medioglycaemia”: A new concept in glycaemic control in intensive care (ICU) units?  [PDF]
Victoria H. Tomlinson, Jane Langley, Andrew G. Meal, Gary G. Adams
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.24056
Abstract: Introduction: Critically ill patients can experience stress-induced hyperglycaemia. Glycaemic control therapy (GCT) is administered to control patients’ blood glycaemic levels and reduce the incidence of infection, myocardial infarctions and organ failure. However, there are many factors influencing the effectiveness of glycaemic control for patients. This investigation aimed to review the method of Glycaemic Control Therapy (GCT) used in two hospital settings, to assess the effectiveness of glycaemic control on patients’ blood glycaemic levels and examine any barriers that may be in place. Method: A retnrospective audit was carried out on patients’ case notes in Intensive Care Units (ICU) within the East Midlands, UK. This method prevents the study outcomes being swayed because GCT has already taken place. To reduce selection bias the most recent available case notes were selected. All the patients who were admitted to these adult ICU’s between March and April 2010 had their case notes examined, those who were administered GCT were included in the study, this involved 79 from Hospital A and 50 from Hospital B. The patients’ notes were retrospectively audited. Results: Different glycaemic control protocols were being implemented in each hospital, despite both belonging to the same ICU network. In most incidences, regardless of age, diabetes status or diagnosis, patients were administered the same sliding scale insulin (SSI). It was also found that GCT commenced for 41.9% (n = 52) of ICU patients (across both Hospitals) when glycaemic levels were below the established threshold of 10mmol/L. Additionally, a new glycaemic range has been discovered, where 88.3% (n = 113) of patients (across both Hospitals) receiving GCT were not controlled in hypoglycaemia, normoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. They had mean blood glycaemic levels maintained between 5.6 - 9.9 mmol/L, now being described as medioglycaemia. Conclusions: The majority of patients receiving GCT were controlled in medioglycaemia and therefore a new comprehensive guideline needs to be developed incorporating this new range. Recommendations also need to be established to adapt the titration regimen to individual patients, to improve the effectiveness and safety of glycaemic control.
Protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scales improve perioperative hyperglycaemia in critical care
Hui Man,Kumar Arun,Adams Gary G
Perioperative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-0525-1-7
Abstract: Perioperative hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Frequent postoperative hyperglycaemia in cardiac surgery patients has led to the initiation of an insulin infusion sliding scale for quality improvement. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether a protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale is as safe and effective as a conventional practitioner-directed insulin infusion sliding scale, within target blood glucose ranges. A literature survey was conducted to identify reports on the effectiveness and safety of an insulin infusion protocol, using seven electronic databases from 2000 to 2012: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Joanna Briggs Institute Library and SIGLE. Data were extracted using pre-determined systematic review and meta-analysis criteria. Seven research studies met the inclusion criteria. There was an improvement in overall glycaemic control in five of these studies. The implementation of protocols led to the achievement of blood glucose concentration targets more rapidly and the maintenance of a specified target blood glucose range for a longer time, without any increased frequency of hyperglycaemia. Of the seven studies, four used controls and three had no controls. In terms of the meta-analysis carried out, four studies revealed a failure of patients reaching target blood glucose levels (P < 0.0005) in the control group compared with patients in the protocol group. The risk of hypoglycaemia was significantly reduced (P <0.00001) between studies. It can be concluded that the protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale is safe and improves blood glucose control when compared with the conventional practitioner-directed insulin infusion sliding scale. This study supports the adoption of a protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale as a standard of care for post-cardiac surgery patients.
Assessment of Biological Properties of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Characteristics Prior To Differentiation  [PDF]
Gary Adams, Lee Buttery, Snow Stolnik, Stephen E. Harding, Nan Wang
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.24047
Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuous cell lines derived directly from the fetal founder tissue of the pre-im- plantation embryo and can be expanded in vitro and give rise to cells from ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal layers. Mouse ES cells can be maintained and their numbers expanded by culture on feeder layer cells with LIF present in the culture medium. This study shows that changes in seeding density can significantly influence cell number expansion rates. Culturing ES cells in the absence of feeder layer cells and LIF stimulates EB formation when cultured in non-adherent culture plates. Formation of EBs particularly numbers, size of EBs formed, rates of cell proliferation within EBs and viability of cells can also be controlled based on seeding density. All these factors are important for optimizing approaches to co-ordinate differentiation towards a specific cell type. A key goal of ES cell research is to develop specific functional cell types which can be potentially used to study mechanisms of tissue development and as a therapy to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues.
Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children
Gary G. Huang
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2000,
Abstract: In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children presumably children of indigenous groups than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.
Questions on meromorphic functions and complex differential equations
Gary G. Gundersen
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Thirty research questions on meromorphic functions and complex differential equations are listed and discussed. The main purpose of this paper is to make this collection of problems available to everyone.
Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work
Byron G. Adams,Anne Crafford
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2012,
Abstract: Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiationand regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identifythe strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves atwork.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa,this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used forregulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis forthis study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in twosemi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpretthe data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into fourbroad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiatingbalance).Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for definingthemselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement andproductivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identitywork, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate theiridentities at work.
Enhancing Ocean Literacy Using Real-Time Data
Lisa G. Adams,George Matsumoto
Oceanography , 2009,
Abstract: Ocean literacy is the understanding of our relationship with the ocean and the crucial services that the ocean provides to society and other living organisms (Cava et al., 2005). In 2004, a number of ocean science and educational communities adopted seven essential ocean literacy principles1 (Cava et al., 2005). These principles were further broken down into concepts, which were designed to teach science standards using an ocean orientation. Most state science standards do not specifically address these ocean principles but they have been categorized according to the National Science Educational Standards by discipline and overlap with the other traditional science disciplines. Hoffman and Barstow (2007) noted that no state addresses more than 20 of the 35 fundamental ocean concepts. Ten of the 35 concepts that were more biology focused were not included in their study. They also noted that more research needs to be conducted to evaluate whether students learn core science concepts and process skills using ocean literacy as the primary curriculum.
chi_c0 and chi_c2 Decays into eta eta, eta eta', and eta' eta' Final States
G. S. Adams,CLEO Collaboration
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.071101
Abstract: Using a sample of 3 x 10^6 psi(2S) decays collected by the CLEO III and CLEO_c detector configurations, we present results of a study of \chi_{c0} and \chi_{c2} decays into eta-eta, eta-etaprime, and etaprime-etaprime final states. We find B(chi_{c0} -> eta-eta)= (0.31+-0.05+-0.04+-0.02)%, B(chi_{c0} -> eta-etaprime) <0.05 % at the 90% confidence level, and B(chi_{c0} -> etaprime-etaprime) = (0.17 +- 0.04 +-0.02 +-0.01)%. We also present upper limits for the decays of \chi_{c2} into these final states. These results give information on the decay mechanism of \chi_c states into pseudoscalars.
Measurement of Gamma_ee(J/psi), Gamma_tot(J/psi), and Gamma_ee[psi(2S)]/Gamma_ee(J/psi)
G. S. Adams,CLEO Collaboration
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.051103
Abstract: Using data acquired with the CLEO detector at the CESR e+e- collider at sqrt{s} = 3.773 GeV, we measure the cross section for the radiative return process e+e- --> gamma J/psi, J/psi --> mu+mu-, resulting in B(J/psi --> mu+mu-) x Gamma_ee(J/psi) = 0.3384 +- 0.0058 +- 0.0071 keV, Gamma_ee(J/psi) = 5.68 +- 0.11 +- 0.13 keV, and Gamma_tot(J/psi) = 95.5 +- 2.4 +- 2.4 keV, in which the errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also determine the ratio Gamma_ee[psi(2S)] / Gamma_ee(J/psi) = 0.45 +- 0.01 +- 0.02.
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