oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 7 )

2019 ( 689 )

2018 ( 826 )

2017 ( 765 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465545 matches for " Gary A. Rogers "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /465545
Display every page Item
Facilitation of Task Performance and Removal of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation by an Ampakine (CX717) in Nonhuman Primates
Linda J. Porrino,James B. Daunais,Gary A. Rogers,Robert E. Hampson,Sam A. Deadwyler
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030299
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr?opionicacid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30–36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Facilitation of Task Performance and Removal of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation by an Ampakine (CX717) in Nonhuman Primates
Linda J Porrino,James B Daunais,Gary A Rogers,Robert E Hampson,Sam A Deadwyler
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030299
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr?opionicacid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30–36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717) in nonhuman primates.
Porrino Linda J,Daunais James B,Rogers Gary A,Hampson Robert E
PLOS Biology , 2005,
Abstract: The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation. The ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, was tested for its ability to enhance performance of a cognitive, delayed match-to-sample task under normal circumstances in well-trained monkeys, as well as alleviate the detrimental effects of 30-36 h of sleep deprivation. CX717 produced a dose-dependent enhancement of task performance under normal alert testing conditions. Concomitant measures of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc) during the task, utilizing positron emission tomography, revealed increased activity in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus) that was significantly enhanced over normal alert conditions following administration of CX717. A single night of sleep deprivation produced severe impairments in performance in the same monkeys, accompanied by significant alterations in task-related CMRglc in these same brain regions. However, CX717 administered to sleep-deprived monkeys produced a striking removal of the behavioral impairment and returned performance to above-normal levels even though animals were sleep deprived. Consistent with this recovery, CMRglc in all but one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.
Highly interconnected genes in disease-specific networks are enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms
Fredrik Barren?s, Sreenivas Chavali, Alexessander Alves, Lachlan Coin, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Rebecka J?rnsten, Michael A Langston, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Gary Rogers, Hui Wang, Mikael Benson
Genome Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-6-r46
Abstract: We identified modules of highly interconnected genes in disease-specific networks derived from integrating gene-expression and protein interaction data. We examined if those modules were enriched for disease-associated SNPs, and could be used to find novel genes for functional studies. First, we analyzed publicly available gene expression microarray and genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 13, highly diverse, complex diseases. In each disease, highly interconnected genes formed modules, which were significantly enriched for genes harboring disease-associated SNPs. To test if such modules could be used to find novel genes for functional studies, we repeated the analyses using our own gene expression microarray and GWAS data from seasonal allergic rhinitis. We identified a novel gene, FGF2, whose relevance was supported by functional studies using combined small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down and gene expression microarrays. The modules in the 13 complex diseases analyzed here tended to overlap and were enriched for pathways related to oncological, metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This suggested that this union of the modules would be associated with a general increase in susceptibility for complex diseases. Indeed, we found that this union was enriched with GWAS genes for 145 other complex diseases.Modules of highly interconnected complex disease genes were enriched for disease-associated SNPs, and could be used to find novel genes for functional studies.Medical research often focuses on individual diseases and genes. However, complex diseases show considerable comorbidity and are associated with altered interactions between thousands of genes. This suggests a need to find generally applicable principles to study multiple diseases and genes. One solution may be to map differentially expressed, disease-associated genes on to the human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Gene expression microarray studies of several complex diseases have shown
The CD4+ T-cell transcriptome and serum IgE in asthma: IL17RB and the role of sex
Gary M Hunninghake, Jen-hwa Chu, Sunita S Sharma, Michael H Cho, Blanca E Himes, Angela J Rogers, Amy Murphy, Vincent J Carey, Benjamin A Raby
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-11-17
Abstract: Peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from 223 participants from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) with simultaneous measurement of IgE. Total RNA was isolated, and expression profiles were generated with Illumina HumanRef8 v2 BeadChip arrays. Modeling of the relationship between genome-wide gene transcript levels and IgE levels was performed in all subjects, and stratified by sex.Among all subjects, significant evidence for association between gene transcript abundance and IgE was identified for a single gene, the interleukin 17 receptor B (IL17RB), explaining 12% of the variance (r2) in IgE measurement (p value = 7 × 10-7, 9 × 10-3 after adjustment for multiple testing). Sex stratified analyses revealed that the correlation between IL17RB and IgE was restricted to males only (r2 = 0.19, p value = 8 × 10-8; test for sex-interaction p < 0.05). Significant correlation between gene transcript abundance and IgE level was not found in females. Additionally we demonstrated substantial sex-specific differences in IgE when considering multi-gene models, and in canonical pathway analyses of IgE level.Our results indicate that IL17RB may be the only gene expressed in CD4+ T cells whose transcript measurement is correlated with the variation in IgE level in asthmatics. These results provide further evidence sex may play a role in the genomic regulation of IgE.Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a risk factor for both the development of [1] and disease severity in asthma [2]. The production of IgE is controlled by a complex regulatory process that ultimately involves isotype class switching by mononuclear B lymphocytes, [3] a CD4+ T cell dependent process [3]. However, to our knowledge, there has been no analysis of the correlation between genome-wide CD4+ T cell gene expression and the variability in serum IgE among asthmatics.Sex is a critical determinant of IgE level, with males having a stronger tendency towards higher total IgE than females [4]. Sex-related differe
DNA Methylation Changes Separate Allergic Patients from Healthy Controls and May Reflect Altered CD4+ T-Cell Population Structure
Colm E. Nestor ? ,Fredrik Barren?s ?,Hui Wang,Antonio Lentini,Huan Zhang,S?ren Bruhn,Rebecka J?rnsten,Michael A. Langston,Gary Rogers,Mika Gustafsson ?,Mikael Benson ?
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004059
Abstract: Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (Npatients = 8, Ncontrols = 8) and gene expression (Npatients = 9, Ncontrols = 10) profiles of CD4+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (Npatients = 12, Ncontrols = 12), but not by gene expression (Npatients = 21, Ncontrols = 21) was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (Npatients = 35) and controls (Ncontrols = 12), which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4+ T cells.
Anselm on Grace and Free Will
Katherin A. Rogers
The Saint Anselm Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Anselm is the first philosopher to attempt a systematic analysis of libertarian freedom. Regarding grace, he embrace's the position that grace is necessary for salvation and unmerited, while preserving a role for human freedom that is not in the least Pelagian. This paper sketches the problems with Augustine's compatibilism and with Pelagianism, and shows how Anselm reconciles human choice with classical theism, which entails that God is the source of everything that has ontological status. The paper concludes with an argument that, although Anselm holds that God does not offer grace to everyone, he could and should have done so.
Anselm on Forgiveness, Patience, and Free Will
Katherin A. Rogers
The Saint Anselm Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Anselm says some seemingly harsh things about forgiveness, for example, that God cannot simply forgive the wrong done at the Fall. I argue that the harshness is only apparent. God cannot simply forgive sin because that would not be best for mankind. Divine forgiveness must be understood in light of the importance Anselm places on human freedom and the virtue of patience. I look at divine forgiveness in Cur Deus Homo and the first sin in De casu diaboli to explain Anselm's view on why God prefers process to immediate change, in hopes of bringing some new, Anselmian, insight to an old theme.
Anselm on the Character Creation Theory of Punishment
Rogers, Katherin A.
The Saint Anselm Journal , 2007,
Abstract: How can we deal theoretically with the issue of forgiveness? I have found that when facing a philosophical puzzle here at the beginning of the 21st century, help is very likely to be found in the work of Anselm of Canterbury. It turns out that Anselm provides a series of plausible theses about human choice, action, and responsibility, out of which a viable theory of punishment, what I call the Character Creation Theory, can be constructed—a theory which satisfies our various intuitions about punishment at least as well as other retributivist views, but which can make sense of the appropriateness of forgiveness. In this paper I would like to set out the premises of the theory as they appear in Anselm's work.
Anselm on Free Will and the (Possibly Fortunate) Fall
Katherin A. Rogers
The Saint Anselm Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Anselm of Canterbury is the first Christian philosopher to offer a systematic, libertarian analysis of human freedom, including open options and self-causation. Freedom is valuable for the creature since it enables him to share in the aseity of God. There is a text in Cur Deus Homo which would seem to undermine this claim. Here Anselm says that, had Adam and Eve never sinned, their progeny would have been "confirmed in justice" so that they could never sin. But this seems to deny real freedom to the children of unfallen parents. I offer possible ways to deal with this text.
Page 1 /465545
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.