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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224134 matches for " Garry R. Cutting "
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Mutations that permit residual CFTR function delay acquisition of multiple respiratory pathogens in CF patients
Deanna M Green, Kathryn E McDougal, Scott M Blackman, Patrick R Sosnay, Lindsay B Henderson, Kathleen M Naughton, J Michael Collaco, Garry R Cutting
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-140
Abstract: Lung infection, defined as a single positive respiratory tract culture, was assessed for 13 organisms in 1,381 individuals with CF. Subjects were divided by predicted CFTR function: 'Residual': carrying at least one partial function CFTR mutation (class IV or V) and 'Minimal' those who do not carry a partial function mutation. Kaplan-Meier estimates were created to assess CFTR effect on age of acquisition for each organism. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to control for possible cofactors. A separate Cox regression was used to determine whether defining infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Aspergillus (Asp) using alternative criteria affected the results. The influence of severity of lung disease at the time of acquisition was evaluated using stratified Cox regression methods by lung disease categories.Subjects with 'Minimal' CFTR function had a higher hazard than patients with 'Residual' function for acquisition of 9 of 13 organisms studied (HR ranging from 1.7 to 3.78 based on the organism studied). Subjects with minimal CFTR function acquired infection at a younger age than those with residual function for 12 of 13 organisms (p-values ranging: < 0.001 to 0.017). Minimal CFTR function also associated with younger age of infection when 3 alternative definitions of infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Asp were employed. Risk of infection is correlated with CFTR function for 8 of 9 organisms in patients with good lung function (>90%ile) but only 1 of 9 organisms in those with poorer lung function (<50%ile).Residual CFTR function correlates with later onset of respiratory tract infection by a wide spectrum of organisms frequently cultured from CF patients. The protective effect conferred by residual CFTR function is diminished in CF patients with more advanced lung disease.Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disorder in the Caucasian population and progressive obstructive lung disease is the primary cause of mortality[1,2].
Variation in MSRA Modifies Risk of Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis
Lindsay B. Henderson,Vishal K. Doshi,Scott M. Blackman,Kathleen M. Naughton,Rhonda G. Pace,Jackob Moskovitz,Michael R. Knowles,Peter R. Durie,Mitchell L. Drumm,Garry R. Cutting
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002580
Abstract: Meconium ileus (MI), a life-threatening intestinal obstruction due to meconium with abnormal protein content, occurs in approximately 15 percent of neonates with cystic fibrosis (CF). Analysis of twins with CF demonstrates that MI is a highly heritable trait, indicating that genetic modifiers are largely responsible for this complication. Here, we performed regional family-based association analysis of a locus that had previously been linked to MI and found that SNP haplotypes 5′ to and within the MSRA gene were associated with MI (P = 1.99×10?5 to 1.08×10?6; Bonferroni P = 0.057 to 3.1×10?3). The haplotype with the lowest P value showed association with MI in an independent sample of 1,335 unrelated CF patients (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.53–0.98], P = 0.04). Intestinal obstruction at the time of weaning was decreased in CF mice with Msra null alleles compared to those with wild-type Msra resulting in significant improvement in survival (P = 1.2×10?4). Similar levels of goblet cell hyperplasia were observed in the ilea of the Cftr?/? and Cftr?/?Msra?/? mice. Modulation of MSRA, an antioxidant shown to preserve the activity of enzymes, may influence proteolysis in the developing intestine of the CF fetus, thereby altering the incidence of obstruction in the newborn period. Identification of MSRA as a modifier of MI provides new insight into the biologic mechanism of neonatal intestinal obstruction caused by loss of CFTR function.
Effect of Temperature on Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease and Infections: A Replicated Cohort Study
Joseph M. Collaco, John McGready, Deanna M. Green, Kathleen M. Naughton, Christopher P. Watson, Timothy Shields, Scott C. Bell, Claire E. Wainwright, for the ACFBAL Study Group, Garry R. Cutting 3
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027784
Abstract: Background Progressive lung disease accounts for the majority of morbidity and mortality observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). Beyond secondhand smoke exposure and socio-economic status, the effect of specific environmental factors on CF lung function is largely unknown. Methods Multivariate regression was used to assess correlation between specific environmental factors, the presence of pulmonary pathogens, and variation in lung function using subjects enrolled in the U.S. CF Twin and Sibling Study (CFTSS: n = 1378). Significant associations were tested for replication in the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFF: n = 16439), the Australian CF Data Registry (ACFDR: n = 1801), and prospectively ascertained subjects from Australia/New Zealand (ACFBAL: n = 167). Results In CFTSS subjects, the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 1.06 per °F; p<0.001) was associated with warmer annual ambient temperatures. This finding was independently replicated in the CFF (1.02; p<0.001), ACFDR (1.05; p = 0.002), and ACFBAL (1.09; p = 0.003) subjects. Warmer temperatures (?0.34 points per °F; p = 0.005) and public insurance (?6.43 points; p<0.001) were associated with lower lung function in the CFTSS subjects. These findings were replicated in the CFF subjects (temperature: ?0.31; p<0.001; insurance: ?9.11; p<0.001) and similar in the ACFDR subjects (temperature: ?0.23; p = 0.057). The association between temperature and lung function was minimally influenced by P. aeruginosa. Similarly, the association between temperature and P. aeruginosa was largely independent of lung function. Conclusions Ambient temperature is associated with prevalence of P. aeruginosa and lung function in four independent samples of CF patients from two continents.
A 30-Year Journey of Monitoring Fitness and Skill Outcomes in Physical Education: Lessons Learned and a Focus on the Future  [PDF]
Garry Tester, Timothy R. Ackland, Laurence Houghton
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.43017
Abstract:

The aims of this paper are to provide normative data for primary school-age children from various regions in Australia, to identify secular trends in the data over three decades, to focus on results for selected schools that have adopted varied levels of commitment to the physical education program and finally, to demonstrate a way forward to improve the fitness and skill levels of children. Children’s physical (PQ), fitness (FQ) and skill (SQ) quotient data were collated from over 30 years (1981-2012) of program implementation, with individual data from 27,571 students aged 6 - 12 years. Compared to the initial cohort of children from whom the sub-scale was created (1981- 1989), mean PQ data were consistently 10 - 15 points lower for both boys and girls over the past three decades. There appears no identifiable trend for Australian rural versus metropolitan students. Of great concern, however, was the decline in skill level for the younger children over the past 20 years. While fitness levels appear to have been maintained, the poorer SQ scores for the cohort aged 6 years, particularly in females, clearly impact negatively on the composite PQ values. With detailed test protocols and quotient calculations freely available, and now published normative data, the PQ can be used widely across nations to develop genuine hope for the future of improving the health of children.

 

Modeling of the Ebola Virus Delta Peptide Reveals a Potential Lytic Sequence Motif
William R. Gallaher,Robert F. Garry
Viruses , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/v7010285
Abstract: Filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe outbreaks of human infection, including the extensive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in 2014. In the course of examining mutations in the glycoprotein gene associated with 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) sequences, a differential level of conservation was noted between the soluble form of glycoprotein (sGP) and the full length glycoprotein (GP), which are both encoded by the GP gene via RNA editing. In the region of the proteins encoded after the RNA editing site sGP was more conserved than the overlapping region of GP when compared to a distant outlier species, Tai Forest ebolavirus. Half of the amino acids comprising the “delta peptide”, a 40 amino acid carboxy-terminal fragment of sGP, were identical between otherwise widely divergent species. A lysine-rich amphipathic peptide motif was noted at the carboxyl terminus of delta peptide with high structural relatedness to the cytolytic peptide of the non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) of rotavirus. EBOV delta peptide is a candidate viroporin, a cationic pore-forming peptide, and may contribute to EBOV pathogenesis.
The Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap: A Thirty-Year Evolution and Followup
Sean Boutros,Court Cutting
Plastic Surgery International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/237308
Abstract:
The Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap: A Thirty-Year Evolution and Followup
Sean Boutros,Court Cutting
Plastic Surgery International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/237308
Abstract: In 1971, Micheal Hogan introduced the Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap (LPCPF) which obtained good results with elimination of VPI. However, there was a high incidence of hyponasality and OSA. We hypothesized that preoperative assessment with videofluoroscopy and nasal endoscopy would enable modification and customization of the LPCPF and result in improvement in the result in both hyponasality and obstructive apnea while still maintaining results in VPI. Thirty consecutive patients underwent customized LPCPF. All patients had preoperative diagnosis of VPI resulting from cleft palate. Patient underwent either videofluoroscopy or nasal endoscopy prior to the planning of surgery. Based on preoperative velar and pharyngeal movement, patients were assigned to wide, medium, or narrow port designs. Patients with significant lateral motion were given wide ports while patients with minimal movement were given narrow ports. There was a 96.66% success rate in the treatment of VPI with one patient with persistent VPI (3.33%). Six patients had mild hyponasality (20 %). Two patients had initial OSA (6.67%), one of which had OSA which lasted longer than six months (3.33%). The modifications of the original flap description have allowed for success in treatment of VPI along with an acceptably low rate of hyponasality and OSA. 1. Introduction In 1971, Micheal Hogan introduced the lateral port control pharyngeal flap [1–3]. This flap was conceived out of frustration over the inconsistent results obtained in the correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency with pharyngeal flaps. By noting important contributions to the understanding of physiology and dynamics of hypernasal speech by Warren, Isshiki, and Bjork [4–7], he devised a technique that could be universally applied to all patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency and obtain good result with consistent elimination of hypernasal speech [1–3, 8]. In his technique, the superiorly based flap, lined by the nasal side of the soft palate [9–12], was designed so that the lateral aperture size was controlled by the passage of a 4?mm diameter catheter. This effectively created an air passage that allowed the oropharyngeal pressure build up necessary to eliminate hypernasal speech. After his initial description, the procedure evolved due to observation of the results. At the time Hogan described the LPC pharyngeal flap, sleep apnea had not yet been described as a clinical entity [13, 14]. In terms of speech intelligibility, hyponasality is preferred over hypernasality. The idea that many cleft palate patients with VPI
Type III actions on boundaries of $\tilde A_n$ buildings
Paul Cutting,Guyan Robertson
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Let $\Gamma$ be a group of type rotating automorphisms of a building $\fX$ of type $\tilde A_n$ and order $q$. Suppose that $\G$ acts freely and transitively on the vertex set of $\fX$. Then the action of $\Gamma$ on the boundary of $\fX$ is ergodic, of type $\tq$ or type $\tqs$ depending on whether $n$ is odd or even.
Recognizing Text Genres with Simple Metrics Using Discriminant Analysis
Jussi Karlgren,Douglass Cutting
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: A simple method for categorizing texts into predetermined text genre categories using the statistical standard technique of discriminant analysis is demonstrated with application to the Brown corpus. Discriminant analysis makes it possible use a large number of parameters that may be specific for a certain corpus or information stream, and combine them into a small number of functions, with the parameters weighted on basis of how useful they are for discriminating text genres. An application to information retrieval is discussed.
Effect of Cooking and Reconstitution Methods on the Loss of Bioactive Compounds in Pigmented and Unpigmented Potatoes  [PDF]
Mohammed Z. Alam, Gefu Wang-Pruski, Mark Hodges, Garry R. Hawkins, Martin Dino Kubik, Sherry A. E. Fillmore
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.81003
Abstract: Total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of five coloured/pigmented (AR2009-10, Adirondack Red, Adirondack Blue, Congo, and POROIPG22-1) and two unpigmented potato genotypes (“Anuschka” and “Russet Burbank”) were assessed in fresh (with and without skin) and commercially processed/cooked/reconstituted products. Ascorbate profiles of the seven genotypes also were investigated using fresh tuber/tissue only. The results showed that genotypes greatly varied in their contents of bioactive compounds. Ascorbate profiles of the genotypes were not associated to any particular flesh colour/pigment. However, the pigmented potatoes had 1.5 to 2.5 times more the phenolics, 2 to 3 times more antioxidant capacity and higher levels of anthocyanins (13.98 to 38.57 mg C3GE-100g FW) compared to unpigmented genotypes. No anthocyanins were detected in the unpigmented potatoes. Significant losses of total phenolics, anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity were found during peeling (18% - 23%), blanching process (40% - 60%) and further cooking/ reconstitution (7% - 12%) with no prominent genotype differences. Together, 65 to 90% of these bioactive compounds were lost during processing. The results suggested that pigmented potatoes contained higher amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins and blanching step took away the most of the original bioactive compounds.
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