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In this paper, a double-buffer traffic shaper was investigated to adjust video frame rate inflow into the TCP sender-buffer of a multimedia application source across a slow-speed link. In order to guarantee QoS across a slow-speed link (i.e. < 1 MBPS), the double-buffer traffic shaper was developed. In this paper, the buffer size dynamics of double-buffer was investigated. The arrival and departure of frames were modeled as a stochastic process. The transition matrix for the process was generated and the stationary probability computed. A simulation program was written in Matlab 7.0 to monitor the buffer fullness of the second buffer when a 3600 seconds H.263 encoder trace data was used as test data. In the second buffer, it was discovered that over 90% of the play-time, the buffer occupancy was upper bounded at 300 frames per second and utilization maintained below 30%.
Oxidative stress has been identified as one of the factors that affects fertility status. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and Newbuoldia laevis leaves on FeSO4 and Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes in vitro. Incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO4 and SNP caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. The aqueous extract from both Moringa oleifera and Newbuoldia laevis leaves caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the testes in a dose-dependent manner. However, aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera leaf (EC50 = 0.29 mg/ml) had a significant (P<0.05) higher inhibitory effect on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenate than that of Newbuoldia laevis leaf extract (EC50 = 0.58 mg/ml); while there was no significant (P<0.05) difference between the plant extracts on SNP induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates. Therefore, part of the mechanisms through which the water extractable phytochemicals in the leaves protect the testes from oxidative stress may be through their antioxidant activity; DPPH scavenging ability, Fe2+ chelating and reducing power. Therefore, these plants have potential to prevent oxidative stress in testes and improve fertility outcomes.