Abstract:
By using the so-called matrix-product ground state approach, a few one-dimensional quantum systems, including a frustrated spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladder, the ferromagnetic t-J-V model at half-filling, the antiferromagnetic $J_z-V$ at 2/3 filling and the antiferromagnetic $t-J_z-V$ model at half-filling, are solved exactly. The correlation functions in the ground states are calculated respectively. Some relevant results are also discussed.

Abstract:
Magnetic and superconducting pairing correlation functions in a general class of Hubbard models, the t-J model and a single-band Hubbard model with additional bond-charge interaction are investigated, respectively. Some rigorous upper bounds of the corresponding correlation functions are obtained. It is found that the decay of the spin-spin correlation function with temperature in the general Hubbard models can not be slower than the squared inverse law at low temperatures and the inverse law at high temperatures, while the on-site pairing correlation function can not be slower than the inverse law. An upper bound for the average energy of the t-J model is found. The upper bounds for the spin-spin and the electron pairing correlation functions in the t-J model as well as in the Hubbard model with bond-charge interaction are also obtained. These bounds are expected to provide certain standards for approximate methods. In some special cases, these bounds rule out the possibility of corresponding magnetic and pairing long-range order.

Abstract:
By making use of known exact results and symmetry properties for the one-band Hubbard model, we show in a somewhat exact manner that there is no phase separation on a square lattice at arbitrary fillings at finite temperature for both attractive and repulsive on-site Coulomb interaction. This result is consistent with the quantum Monto Carlo calculation.

Abstract:
The quantum statistical mechanics of an ideal gas with a general free-particle energy obeying fractional exclusion statistics are systematically investigated in arbitrary dimensions. The pressure relations, the relation between pressure and internal energy, the equation of state, as well as the thermodynamic properties are thoroughly discussed. Some novel results are obtained.

Abstract:
A universal relation connecting Fermi surface (FS) to the symmetry of the gap function in BCS-like superconductors is derived. It is found that the shape of the FS can be deduced directly from the symmetry of the superconducting gap function, and is also influenced by the next nearest-neighbor overlapping. The application of this relation to cuprate superconductors is discussed. There is observed an interesting property that Luttinger's theorem perfectly holds for the tight-binding band while it is violated by inclusion of the next nearest-neighbor overlapping integral.

Abstract:
By making use of some symmetry properties of the relevant Hamiltonian, two fundamental relations between the ferromagnetic magnetization and a spin correlation function are derived for the $d (=1,2,3)$-dimensional Hubbard model at finite temperatures. These can be viewed as a kind of Ward-Takahashi identities. The properties of the magnetization as a function of the applied field are discussed. The results thus obtained hold true for both repulsive and attractive on-site Coulomb interactions, and for arbitrary electron fillings.

Abstract:
The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of spin-1/2 Heisenberg diamond chains are investigated in three different cases: (a) J1, J2, J3>0 (frustrated); (b) J1, J3<0, J2>0 (frustrated); and (c) J1, J2>0, J3<0 (non-frustrated). The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique is invoked to study the properties of the system in the ground state, while the transfer matrix renormalization group (TMRG) technique is applied to explore the thermodynamic properties. The local magnetic moments, spin correlation functions, and static structure factors are discussed in the ground state for the three cases. It is shown that the static structure factor S(q) shows peaks at wavevectors $q=a\pi /3$ (a=0,1,2,3,4,5) for different couplings in a zero magnetic field, which, however in the magnetic fields where the magnetization plateau with m=1/6 pertains, exhibits the peaks only at q=0, $2\pi /3$ and $4\pi /3$, which are found to be couplings-independent. The DMRG results of the zero-field static structure factor can be nicely fitted by a linear superposition of six modes, where two fitting equations are proposed. It is observed that the six modes are closely related to the low-lying excitations of the system. At finite temperatures, the double-peak structures of the susceptibility and specific heat against temperature are obtained, where the peak positions and heights are found to depend on the competition of the couplings. It is also uncovered that the XXZ anisotropy of F and AF couplings leads the system of case (c) to display quite different behaviors. In addition, the experimental data of the susceptibility, specific heat and magnetization for the compound Cu$_{3}$(CO$_{3}$)$_{2}$(OH)$_{2}$ are fairly compared with our TMRG results.

Abstract:
It is rigorously shown that the two-dimensional Hubbard model with narrow bands (including next nearest-neighbor hopping, etc.) does not exhibit $d_{x^2 -y^2}$-wave pairing long-range order at any nonzero temperature. This kind of pairing long-range order will also be excluded at zero temperature if an excited energy gap opens in the charge excitation spectrum of the system. These results hold true for both repulsive and attractive Coulomb interactions and for any electron fillings, and are consistent with quantum Monto Carlo calculations.