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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT ACTIVITY OF 4-HYDROXY-3- METHOXY STRYCHNINE, AN ALKALOID FROM THE ROOTS OF STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA LINN
S. Ganapaty*
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of the study is to isolate alkaloids having similar activity to that of strychnine and brucine from Strychnos nuxvomica and to evaluate them. Methanolic extract from the roots of S. nuxvomica after chromatography afforded stigmasterol, b-amyrin and an alkaloid 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy strychnine.The alkaloid exhibited potent central nervous system stimulant activity at lower doses (0.2 mg kg-1, i.p) but displayed depressant, convulsant and toxic effects at higher doses (1 mg kg-1, i.p). This activity is much similar to that of strychnine and indicate that the S. nuxvomica possess several such alkaloids which may be responsible for toxic activity of the drug synergistically.
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Methanolic Extracts from the Aerial Parts of Barleria Montana in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Shyam T,Ganapaty S
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Based on ethnopharmacological information, Barleria montana has been used to treat diabetes by the tribals in and around tropical and subtropical areas.But there are no more scientific reports available about the antidiabetic activity of this plant. Hence the study was carried out to ascertain the activity.The plant was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus and the extracts thus obtained were examined for acute toxicity studies in wistar albino rats at different doses upto 2000 mg/kg body weight. The plant extracts were also evaluated for antidiabetic activity at a dose levels of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.The plant extracts have not produced any toxic symptoms within the treated animals. The maximum reduction in blood glucose level was observed at 8 and 12th hr. after the oral administration of the 400 and 200 mg/kg b. w of methanolic extract of Barleria montana aerial parts respectively. From the observations, it was concluded that the reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats was found to be dose dependent and also dependent on duration of action. So it might be useful in the treatment of diabetes without toxicity.
Des-N-Methylnoracronycine from the roots of Carissa conjesta. Wight
Ganapaty S,Ch. Bharath,Laatsch H
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The methanolic extract of the roots of Carissa conjesta on a sequence of chromatographic techniques afforded a des-N-methylnoracronycine, an acridone alkaloid, carissone, carindone, lupeol besides stigmasterol, ursolic acid and its methyl ester. This is the first report of isolation of an alkaloid from the roots of C. conjesta and also from Carissa genus. All the isolated compounds were characterised by spectroscopic methods.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF THE ROOT EXTRACT OF ARTOCARPUS HIRSUTA, LAM.
Lakshmi Pethakamsetty*, S Ganapaty and K Mary Bharathi
International Journal of Bioassays , 2013,
Abstract: The pantropical genus Artocarpus have been extensively investigated and is well-known to be rich in isoprenylated phenolic secondary metabolites. In the present study the chemical examination of Artocarpus hirsuta roots, on conventional extraction and various chromatographic methods led to the isolaton of stigmasterol, lupeol, cyclomorusin, cycloartomunin and betulinic acid. All the compounds were characterized by 2D NMR and MS spectral data and comparison with published data for the known compounds. The compound cyclomorusin is new to the genus Artocarpus and all the compounds were reported for the first time from the roots of this species. The work was further extended to test the crude extracts for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results from the present study have shown that the species have considerable activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains which can be attributed to the presence of steroidal and phenolic compounds in the crude extracts of Artocarpus hirsuta.
Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb) Kunth Whole Plant
SK Reddy, SA Kumar, VD Kumar, S Ganapaty
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume difference of the animals pre- and post-treatment. Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg) was employed as reference standard. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail flick and tail immersion techniques, by measuring the reaction time of the animals treated with either standard or extract. Pentazocin (30 mg/kg) was used as reference standard. Results: The extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the two test dose levels at the 4th hour (p < 0.001). The extract exhibited anti inflammatory activity of 56.5 (p < 0.001) and 57.1 % (p < 0.001) inhibition compared to the control group in the carrageenan and histamine-induced inflammation model at a dose of 200 mg/kg. For analgesic activity, the extract showed reaction times of 7.33 (p < 0.001) and 7.83 (p < 0.001) min in the tail flick and tail immersion models, respectively, at a dose of 200 mg/kg while the normal and reference groups exhibited reaction times of 2.16, 2.66 and 8.16 (p < 0.001) and 8.5 (p < 0.001) in the tail flick and tail immersion methods, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that Amorphophallus bulbifer possesses antiinflammatory and analgesic properties and this lends some support for its use in traditional medical practice.
EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITIES OF LANTANA WIGHTIANA WALL. EX GAMBLE LEAVES
K. Srinivas Reddy,A. Sanjeeva Kumar,S. Ganapaty
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Lantana wightiana Wall, a member of Verbenaceae is an unarmed sub shrub, up to 3 m tall. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic and wound healing activities of Lantana wightiana. The leaves were collected, shade dried and extracted with water and ethanol-water (1:1) by maceration for 72h. The aqueous extract was used for anti diabetic activity in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats and hydro alcoholic extract along with leaf juice were evaluated for their wound healing activity in Excision wound model. Studies on the aqueous leaf extract of the plant L. wightiana revealed that the extract caused significant reduction in the blood glucose levels in the rats. The extract was found to produce marked reduction in blood glucose concentration between 2-4 hours of administration in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats at tested dose levels. The studies on wound healing activity revealed that the nitrofurazone treated animals showed 95.19% healing on 14th day of study. On the other hand, the hydro alcoholic extract and leaf juice treated group showed 87.13% and 94.19% healing respectively.
DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME
Srinivas Reddy K,Rajeev Reddy E,Ganapaty S
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA ROOT EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN RATS
K Srinavas Reddy,A Sanjeeva Kumar,S Ganapaty
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Paederia foetida Linn., a member of Rubiaceae is an extensive climber, known as Chinese flower in English, Gandhaprasarini in Hindi, Gandha bhadulia in Bengali, Prasarani in Sanskrit and Savirela in Telugu. It is found in the Himalayas from Dehradun eastwards up to an altitude of 1800m and also in Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Assam and Araku vally in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. Since the plant was reported to have many medicinal uses, we taken up the plant to give scientific support to the folklore claim on the antiulcer activity of roots. The anti ulcer screening was performed using two methods that is pyloric ligation method and aspirin induced ulcerations in rats. Volume of gastric acid, total acidity and the free acidity were also measured to assess the anti ulcer potential. The present investigation therefore expressed that the roots of P. foetida exerts anti-ulcer activity which may be due to anticipated inhibition of H2 receptors resulting in inhibition of gastric acid secretion elicited by histamine and gastrin. The work justifies its use in the traditional system of medicine.
Degree Splitting of Root Square Mean Graphs  [PDF]
S. S. Sandhya, S. Somasundaram, S. Anusa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.66086
Abstract: Let \"\" be an injective function. For a vertex labeling f, the induced edge labeling \"\" is defined by, \"\" or \"\"; then, the edge labels are distinct and are from \"\". Then f is called a root square mean labeling of G. In this paper, we prove root square mean labeling of some degree splitting graphs.
A Parameter Estimation Model of G-CSF: Mathematical Model of Cyclical Neutropenia  [PDF]
S. Balamuralitharan, S. Rajasekaran
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.21002
Abstract: We investigate the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) model and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) treatment of CN (Cyclical Neutropenia). We collect grey collies and normal dog’s data from CN and analyze the G-CSF treatment. The model develops the dynamics of circulating blood cells before and after the G-CSF treatment. This is quite natural and useful for the collection of laboratory data for investigation. The proposed interventions are practical. This reduces the quantity of G-CSF required for potential maintenance. This model gives us good result in treatment. The changes would be practical and reduce the risk side as well as the cost of treatment in G-CSF.
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