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Macrophyte-Based Assessment of the Ecological Status of Lakes in Bulgaria
Gana M. Gecheva
Ecologia Balkanica , 2011,
Abstract: The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by the Bavarian Environment Agency. The procedure included calculation of the ‘ecological quality ratio’ (EQR) for each of 78 water bodies, based on transect monitoring data. For 31 of these lakes, a macrophyte assessment system was applied, for the remaining 47 lakes macrophyte quantity was insufficient or depopulation was assessed. Ecological status classification of lakes is based on the calculation of a Reference Index value. The Reference Index quantifies the deviation of species composition and abundance from reference conditions and classifies sites as one of the five possible ecological quality classes specified in the Directive. The EQR indicating Good and High (Maximum) Ecological Status/Potential for macrophytes was achieved in 12 of the 31 lakes which fulfilled the criteria for assessment. The water quality parameters in lake types were discussed.
Aquatic Macrophytes as Microhabitats of Radix auricularia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): A Case Study from Southeast Bulgaria
Stanislava Y. Vasileva,Dilian G. Georgiev,Gana M. Gecheva
Ecologia Balkanica , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the current study is to investigate the abundance of thefreshwater pulmonate snail Radix auricularia among different aquatic plants communities, with the view of understanding if there is any particular habitat preference, comparing two freshwater basins having similar environmental conditions. The freshwater plant species were collected by net from two ponds at the end of May 2009 - 650 g wet plant mass, micro dam at Chernoochene Village, East Rhodopes Mts.; 138 g wet plant mass, small flood pond near the Maritza River, Plovdiv City, Upper Thracian Lowland. The plant mass was weighted in the laboratory after the alive snails were collected from the plant surface. Totally three species of freshwater plants were inhabited by R. auricularia, but its abundance and possible preference was highest on the Rigid Hornworth (Ceratophyllum demersum).
On the Communities of Freshwater Gastropods on Aquatic Macrophytes in Some Water Basins of Southern Bulgaria
Stanislava Y. Vasileva,Dilian G. Georgiev,Gana M. Gecheva
Ecologia Balkanica , 2011,
Abstract: The research was conducted through the period 2008 - 2009 in the Upper Thracian Lowland: Maritsa River in the city of Plovdiv, flood area near the bridge at UFT; Eastern Rhodopes: Varbitsa River at around 3 km south of the town of Kardzhali; Perperek River, within the village of Perperk; a pond in the village of Chernoochene. The material was collected from total of 3427 g herbage biomass from 7 plant species. On the aquatic macrophytes we generally found approximately the same diversity of species of freshwater gastropods during the cold and during the warm seasons. During the warm period we found a total of 6 species, and during the cold - 7 species. Most species we found on C. demersum, and E. canadensis. Overall for the studied water basins and seasons, the species R. auricularia, Ph. acuta and G. albus were most numerous and prefer to live on C. demersum. We calculated a narrow ecological niche of the species in most cases, where slightly wider ecological niches were registered for R. auricularia and G. albus. Largest diversity of snail communities we found on C. demersum and E. canadensis. The value of the diversity index was very low for the other species of macrophytes. We calculated low values of S rensen’s index between most of the freshwater macrophytes in relation to communities of gastropods. High similarity between the communities we indicated for C. demersum and P. pussilus, and C. muricatum, and Lemna sp., and very high between P. pussilus, and Lemna sp. We found an aggregated distribution on the macrophytes of the following species of gastropods: R. auricularia, Ph. acuta, P. corneus, P. planorbis, G. albus and occasional one for V. piscinalis, A. lacustris, and L. stagnalis.
Bryophytes in Protected Territories of Plovdiv City (Bulgaria): Preliminary Species List and First Data of Air Pollution Monitoring
Yordanka G. Hristeva,Gana M. Gecheva,Lilyana D. Yurukova
Ecologia Balkanica , 2011,
Abstract: The study comprises preliminary results of survey on bryophyte diversity in protected areas in the city of Plovdiv and biomonitoring urban air pollution with moss Hy p n u m c u p r e s s i f o r m e. The finding of 2 species with conservational value (Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Grimmia crinita Brid.) suggests that surveys of bryophyte biodiversity across protected landscapes should be continued. The determined concentrations of 15 elements in Hypnum cupressiforme revealed no serious pollution by airborne heavy metals and toxic elements contaminants. The applied biomonitor and PCA distinctly separated anthropogenic influenced city sites and reference one.
Evaluation of the Ecological Condition of the Rivers from the Subbasin of Arda River
Irina M. Mecheva,Gana M. Gecheva,Svetoslav D. Cheshmedzhiev,Marin I. Marinov
Ecologia Balkanica , 2009,
Abstract: The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/;> requires new ecological approaches towards water resources sustainable management on the basinprinciple and new concept for assessment the water bodies ecological status to be applied. Current research aims at establishment of the rivers ecological status in the Arda River sub-basin. Data on Biotic Index at 66 sampling sites in the period 2000-2006 and additionally 25 common physical and inorganic chemical parameters at 7 sites during 2004-2006 have been assessed. The results for the sub-basin indicate a risk of failing to achieve good ecological status by 2015.
Integrated Assessment of the Ecological Status of Bulgarian Lowland and Semi-Mountain Natural Lakes  [PDF]
Gana Gecheva, Lilyana Yurukova, Svetoslav Cheshmedjiev, Emilia Varadinova, Detelina Belkinova
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46A004
Abstract:

This work focuses on an integrated approach for lake ecological status assessment, elaborated according to the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Data from five lowland and semi-mountain lakes in Bulgaria (Southeast Europe) collected from two years (2011-2012) form the basis for an integrated assessment and the definition of reference conditions. Several metrics were applied in combination, to classify lakes into five ecological status classes. Assemblages of aquatic organisms: phytoplankton, macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates, together with 11 supporting physico-chemical parameters were studied. The assessed unique conditions suggested that reference conditions of Bulgarian lakes have natural variability. This first baseline study illustrated specific cases within the lake types that should be assessed in details before providing standardized classification systems in compliance with the requirements of WFD.

Post Partum Care Practices among Postnatal Mothers in Tharu Community, Kailali District, Nepal
G Gana
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v3i2.8438
Abstract: Postnatal mothers are in high risk because most of the deaths occur in this period as compared to pregnancy and childbirth. The objectives of the research was to assess & find out the factors associated with post partum care practices among post-natal mothers and to suggest the measures for the utilization of post partum care services. A total of 175 respondents (all mothers having children below one year) were selected by using multi stage sampling technique from different wards of Dhangadi municipality, and Beladevipur, Geta, Phulbari, & Sripur VDCs of Kailali district from January to June, 2009. The data were statistically analyzed by using chi square test & Pearsons’ correlation test. Family income plays a significant role in Nutritious diet within 24 hours. Occupation had no effect on the frequency of postnatal visits. Education plays a signifi-cant role in changing perineal pad. Only 49.7% of respondents had done postnatal visit. Education plays significant role on colostrum feeding practices. Odds ratio = 4.09 (CI=32.06-55.34) at 95% confidence limit. Literate respondents have 4 times more practice of colostrum feeding as compared to illiterate. Distance plays a significant role in health facilities. Education of mothers play major role in postpartum care practices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v3i2.8438 Journal of Chitwan Medical College Vol.3(2) 2013 24-26
Contribution de la biopsie stereotaxique dans la prise en charge des tumeurs cerebrales: a propos de 283 cas
MY Oudrhiri, M Laghmari, M Hemama, R Gana, MR Maaqili, F Bellakhdar
African Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction L’avènement de la biopsie stéréotaxique (BST) et le développement du scanner et de l’IRM ont amélioré la prise en charge des tumeurs cérébrales. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer le r le de la BST dans la prise en charge des tumeurs cérébrales. Matériel et Méthodes Etude rétrospective de 1995 à 2008 concernant 283 patients consécutifs ayant des tumeurs cérébrales, ayant bénéficié d’une BST, colligés au service de Neurochirurgie. L’age moyen était de 45.5 ans (9 à 84). La BST fut réalisée sous guidage scannographique dans 260 cas et sous guidage IRM dans 23 cas. Pour les tumeurs pinéales, depuis Janvier 2000, une artériographie avec temps phlébographique et IRM préopératoire ont été jugées utiles pour éviter les complications hémorragiques. Resultats Dans 271 cas, la BST était concluante dès la première tentative (95.7%). La répétition de la BST a permis de rétablir un diagnostic précis. Il s’agissait de lésions malignes (70 % des cas). La mortalité péri-opératoire est passé de 5,9% avant 2000 à 0% après 2000 (Chi-carré; p = 0,013). Conclusion Les BST doivent être étagées et répétées en cas d’histologie non concluante. Pour les petites lésions profondes la BST en conditions IRM est nécessaire. Pour les tumeurs pinéales, elle doit être réalisée par voie orthogonale trans-temporale. Mots-clés: Biopsie stéréotaxique, tumeur cérébrale, pinéal
Curvas Manométricas Rectales en Ni os: Estudio Promano Fase I Rectal Mamometric Curves in Children: Phase I Study
FRANCISCA JAIME M,SILVANA SAAVEDRA G,JUAN CRISTóBAL GANA A,FRANCISCO LARRAíN B
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2009,
Abstract: Propósito del estudio: Evaluar el rol de la manometría rectoanal (MRA) y establecer valores de normalidad en un grupo de ni os referidos por desórdenes de defecación. Pacientes y Métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de MRA efectuadas durante un período de 8 a os. Resultados: Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos de 789 ni os (52,6% hombres). éstos se clasificaron en cuatro grupos según resultado de la MRA como "Grupo control" (CL), "Grupo con probable megarrecto" (PMG), "Grupo con anormalidades de la inervación intrínseca" (All) y "Grupo con anormalidades de la inervación extrínseca" (ALE). Setenta y nueve porciento de los pacientes fueron referidos para evaluación de constipación crónica y 10% por sospecha de anormalidades de inervación intrínseca; en 94% y 83% de ellos respectivamente, la MRA descartó causas orgánicas. Los ni os se distribuyeron en: CL (48,0%), PMG (42,6%), All (7,5%) y AIE (1,5%). El grupo CL y PMG mostraron diferencias edad-dependiente en algunos parámetros manométricos. Además se encontró diferencias en parámetros manométricos entre CL, PMG, All y AIE. Conclusiones: La principal indicación de MRA fue para estudio de constipación crónica, siendo las alteraciones orgánicas confirmadas sólo en un bajo porcentaje. Se describió cuatro patrones diferentes en 789 pacientes referidos para evaluación de dificultades en la defecación. Aim of this study: To evaluate the role of anorectal manometry (ARM) and determine normal ARM's parameters in a group of children referred for evaluation of defecation disorders. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of pediatric ARMs performed over an 8-year period. Results: Records from 789 children (52.6% male) were reviewed. Patients were classified in four groups according to the main ARM's findings in: "Control group" (CL), "Probable megarectum group" (PMG), "Abnormalities of intrinsic innervation group" (All) and "Abnormalities of extrinsic innervation group" (AET). 79% of them had been referred for evaluation of chronic constipation and 10% because of suspicion of abnormalities of intrinsic innervation. In 94 and 83% of them respectively, the ARM ruled out organic causes. ARM's findings distribution was: CL (48.0%), PMG (42.6%), All (7.5%) and AEI (1.5%). CL and PMG showed age-dependent differences in manometric parameters. Differences in manometric parameters between CL, PMG, API and AEI were found. Conclusions: Four distinctive patterns were described in 789 patients referred for evaluation of their presumed defecation disorder. The main indication of ARM was study of chronic constipation, where or
Evaluación de los índices de monitoreo de pH esofágico y su relación con indicaciones clínicas: MePeache Fase I Evaluation of the esophageal pH monitoring and its relation with clinical indications: MePeache Phase I
SILVANA SAAVEDRA G,FRANCISCA JAIME M,JUAN CRISTóBAL GANA A,FRANCISCO LARRAíN B
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2007,
Abstract: Objetivos: Establecer valores promedio y rangos de normalidad de parámetros pHmétricos diferentes al índice de Reflujo (IR) en monitoreos de pH esofágico (MpHe), según nuevos valores de IR y correlacionarlos con el diagnóstico clínico. Pacientes y Método: Estudio retrospectivo de parámetros de MpHe incluyendo IR, no y duración de episodios (DPE), no episodios > 5 min y duración episodio mayor. Se reagrupó a los 153 pacientes según edad (Grupo I < 1 a o y Grupo II > 1 a o) y según IR como: Grupo Normal (NL) a aquéllos con IR en rango fisiológico (IR < 12% GI y < 6% GII) y Grupo Patológico (PT), cuando el IR superaba estos valores. Resultados: Las indicaciones más frecuentes fueron estudio de RGE (41,7%), patología de vías aéreas (19,9%) y otorrinolaringológicas (17,2%). Al comparar MpHes en GI (n = 53) no se encontraron diferencias significativas según género, médico referente o indicación. En el Grupo NL de GII (n = 100) se encontró un IR en ni os referidos por pediatras mayor al de aquellos referidos por gastroenterólogos (p = 0,002). Según grupos NL y PT, todos los parámetros pHmétricos resultaron significativos (p < 0,005), excepto la DPE. 84,9% y 77% de los MpHes en GI y GII, respectivamente fueron normales. Conclusión: Los índices de MpHe permiten separar los grupos NL y PT bajo los nuevos puntos de corte del IR. Existe escaso correlato entre sospecha clínica y diagnóstico pHmétrico lo que sugiere la necesidad de reevaluar sus indicaciones clínicas Objectives: Establish mean values and normality range for pH metric parameters, different to reflux index (RI), in esophageal pH monitoring (EpHm) according to new RI cut- off values; besides, correlate them with clinical diagnosis. Method: Retrospective study of EpHm parameters including RI, number and average length of episodes (DPE), number of episodes > 5 minutes and duration of the longest episode. 153 patients were classified according to age (Group I < 1 year and Group II > 1 year) and RI cut-off values: Normal group (NL) with physiological range (RI < 12% GI and < 6% GII) and Pathological group (PT) when RI was higher. Results: The most frequent EpHm indications were gastroesophageal reflux (GER) study (41.7%), airway diseases (19.9%) and otolaryngologic diseases (17.2%). There was no correlation between EpHm parameters in GI (n = 53) when analyzed by gender, referring physician or EpHm indication. In GII (n = 100), the RI for children referred by pediatricians was higher than the one for those referred by gastroenterologists in Group NL (p = 0.002). There were differences in all pH metric parame
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