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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents one of the most challenging potentially curable tumors with high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. For proper assessment, prognosis estimation and treatment decisions, at least seven important guidelines and staging systems were designated. Proper treatment needs the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate line of treatment. The different modalities of management include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies with a wide range of investigational drugs that developed after the FDA approved sorafenib. Downstaging and bridging are two important strategies to manage HCC patients who will undergo liver transplantation to improve their postoperative survival. Finally, survival and prognosis depends on several prognostic factors that are either patient related or tumor related. In our study, we aim to provide an updated comprehensive review of the different aspects of liver cancer management starting from staging systems to the different applied treatment modalities.
Background and Aim: Hepatic focal lesions differ in their tissue composition and in the degree of stiffness, so our aim was to evaluate the role of Ultrasonic Transient Elastography (Fibroscan) in the measurement of hepatic focal lesions stiffness in order to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) focal lesions from other non HCC focal lesions. Methods: The study was conducted on 34 patients with hepatic focal lesion(s) in the right lobe located near the liver surface and more than or equal4 cmin diameter, detected by imaging studies and diagnosed by CT and histopathology. Stiffness over the focal lesions was measured by the fibroscan. Results: The median value of stiffness was 72.5 kPa over HCC focal lesions, 17.2 kPa over lymphoma focal lesions, 6.5 kPa over metastatic focal lesions and 10.5 kPa over the sarcoidosis focal lesion. Conclusions: Hepatocellular carcinoma focal lesions are much stiffer than lymphoma, metastasis or sarcoidosis focal lesions. Fibroscan may be a useful non-invasive method in the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma in the future.