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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168114 matches for " Gamal E. Esmat "
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Outcome of patients undergoing early versus late endoscopic intervention for acute oesophageal variceal bleeding at Air Force Hospital, Egypt. A population based cohort study  [PDF]
Gamal Esmat, Iman M. Hamza, Bahaa E. Abbas
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.41005
Abstract: Background: Whether on-call gastroenterologists should perform emergency endoscopic treatment or delay endoscopy the next day has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the effect of timing of endoscopy on patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. Patients and Methods: We included 167 patients with acute variceal bleeding in the gas-troenterology unit of the air force hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from 15 January till 15 July 2010. Endoscopy was scheduled once the patient’s hemodynamics permitted. Time from admission to endoscopy was recorded. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: Early endoscopy: when done ≤ 12 hours and late endoscopy: when done > 12 hours. Patients were followed up for 42 days. Results: The study included 102 males (61.1%) and 65 females (38.9%) (mean age 54 ± 11 years). 151 patients received endoscopic treatment. Early endoscopy group included 85 patients (56.3%), and the late endoscopy group included 66 patients (43.7%) (p = 0.14). Early endoscopy patients were transfused a mean of 2.9 (±1.8) units of blood versus 4.3 (±0.14) units in the late endoscopy patients p = 0.001. Mean hospital stay was 7.1 (±3.3) days versus 9.3 (±4.6) days in the early and late groups respectively p: 0.001. 5-day mortality was reported in 6 (±7) cases in the early endoscopy group and 23 (±34.8) cases in the late endoscopy group p: 0.001. Conclusion: Early endoscopic intervention for patients with acute variceal bleeding is associated with a more favorable outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. On call gastroenterologists should comply with the 12-hour period rather than delaying cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding to the following day.
Management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding by endoscopic sclerotherapy in technically difficult endoscopic band ligation cases—A population based cohort study  [PDF]
Gamal E. Esmat, Iman M. Hamza, Bahaa E. Abbas, Ahmed M. Hashem, Hossam S. Ghoneim
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.35048
Abstract: Endoscopic band ligation is regarded as the main therapeutic option for acute esophageal variceal bleeding, while sclerotherapy may be used in the acute setting if ligation is technically difficult. The incidence of difficult-to-perform band ligation in acute esophageal variceal bleeding, as well as the outcome of patients subjected to injection sclerotherapy as an alternative treatment, has not been clearly investigated. Our aim is to study the outcome of patients subjected to injection sclerotherapy in the acute setting of esophageal variceal bleeding when endoscopic band ligation is technically difficult to perform. We included 151 patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding originnating from medium or large sized varices. All patients were planned for EBL as the 1st treatment option (EBL group 61.6%), meanwhile, EIS using 5% ethanolamine oleate was reserved as the 2nd treatment option when EBL was technically difficult (EIS group 38.4%). The mean time to restore hemodynamic stability was significantly prolonged in the EIS group (11.5 ± 6.5 hrs versus 9.5 ± 5.0 hrs, p 0.05). Initial control of bleeding was significantly higher in the EBL group versus the EIS group (96.7% vs 84.5%, p 0.021). Re-bleeding was more among the EIS group (42.9% vs 24.2%, p 0.04). There were no significant differences as regarding mortality and duration of hospital stay. So, a considerable proportion of cases presenting with acute variceal bleeding will have difficulty in performing EBL. In these patients, sclerotherapy is not a waning procedure with an accepted success rate, without much additional complications and without deranging mortality.
Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Updated Review  [PDF]
Tamer Elbaz, Mohamed El Kassas, Gamal Esmat
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.42067

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents one of the most challenging potentially curable tumors with high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. For proper assessment, prognosis estimation and treatment decisions, at least seven important guidelines and staging systems were designated. Proper treatment needs the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate line of treatment. The different modalities of management include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies with a wide range of investigational drugs that developed after the FDA approved sorafenib. Downstaging and bridging are two important strategies to manage HCC patients who will undergo liver transplantation to improve their postoperative survival. Finally, survival and prognosis depends on several prognostic factors that are either patient related or tumor related. In our study, we aim to provide an updated comprehensive review of the different aspects of liver cancer management starting from staging systems to the different applied treatment modalities.

Factors Affecting Recurrence of Hepatitis C Virus in Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Among Egyptian Patients
Osman Enaiat Ezat, Esmat Gamal, Adela Mahmood Gad, Eissa Somia Soliman, El E l Abgeegy Mohammad, Atteyate Hatia
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0144
Abstract: Background. The population in Egypt has a heavy burden of chronic liver disease, mostly due to chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Aim. To study prevalence and the factors affecting on recurrence of HCV genotype 4 in post-living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) among Egyptian patients. Subjects and Methods. This study was conducted on 86 Egyptian patients who had HCV genotype 4 related end stage liver diseases. These patients (82 males and 4 females) with mean age 49. 21 ± 6.58 years were performed LDLT after exclusion of patients with active HBV or HCV with HIV. Liver enzymes, PCR for HCV RNA and histopathological studies were carried out to detect HCV recurrence. Results. 29 out of 86 (33.7%) patients who received LDLT showed post-transplantation HCV recurrence within 3.89 years postoperative. Most of them showed HCV recurrence within the first year of post LDLT. The only two factors incriminated in recurrence are the viral load of recipient before transplantation and previous exposure for HBV. Conclusion. One third of Egyptian HCV genotype 4 related diseases who received LDLT showed HCV recurrence. The viral load of recipient before transplantation and previous exposure for HBV are only two factors incriminated in recurrence.
Use of ultrasonic transient elastography (Fibroscan) in the assessment of hepatic focal lesion stiffness  [PDF]
Mohamed Yousef, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mohammad El Beshlawy, Gamal Esmat, Zakaria Salama
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.32018

Background and Aim: Hepatic focal lesions differ in their tissue composition and in the degree of stiffness, so our aim was to evaluate the role of Ultrasonic Transient Elastography (Fibroscan) in the measurement of hepatic focal lesions stiffness in order to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) focal lesions from other non HCC focal lesions. Methods: The study was conducted on 34 patients with hepatic focal lesion(s) in the right lobe located near the liver surface and more than or equal4 cmin diameter, detected by imaging studies and diagnosed by CT and histopathology. Stiffness over the focal lesions was measured by the fibroscan. Results: The median value of stiffness was 72.5 kPa over HCC focal lesions, 17.2 kPa over lymphoma focal lesions, 6.5 kPa over metastatic focal lesions and 10.5 kPa over the sarcoidosis focal lesion. Conclusions: Hepatocellular carcinoma focal lesions are much stiffer than lymphoma, metastasis or sarcoidosis focal lesions. Fibroscan may be a useful non-invasive method in the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma in the future.

A Reconfigurable UWB Bandpass Filters with Embedded Multi-Mode Resonators  [PDF]
Eman Gamal Ouf, Ashraf S. Mohra, Esmat Abdel-Fattah Abdallah, Hadia Elhennawy
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2018.63005
The two proposed filters described here satisfy the Federal Communications Commission Ultra-wideband (FCC-UWB) specifications and also control the center frequency and bandwidth of the filters passband. These filters consist of two distinguishing parts, Electromagnetic bandgap (EBG)-embedded multiple- mode resonator (MMR) and interdigital coupled lines to realize high performance in the operation band with a compact size of 14.0 mm × 10.1 mm. The main advantage of the two proposed filters is that three different bands are tuned. The 1st tuned band is from 3.5 GHz to 11.4 GHz for the first filter and from 3.1 GHz to 11.6 GHz for the second proposed filter, respectively. The 2nd tuned band is from 3.5 GHz to 7.5 GHz for the first filter and from 3.1 GHz to 7.8 GHz for the second proposed filter, respectively. While the 3rd tuned band of the first proposed filter is from 3.5 GHz to 5.9 GHz and from 3.1 GHz to 5.8 GHz for the second proposed filter. The bandwidth of the filters can be changed by increasing the length of the outer open circuited stubs which are controlled by using switching matrix equipment (mini circuit, replacement of PIN diodes). To validate the design theory, a reconfigurable UWB bandpass filters (BPFs) with EBG Embedded MMR are designed, fabricated and measured. Good agreement is found between simulated and measured results.
Epidemiological Aspects of Intrafamilial Spread of HCV Infection in Egyptian Population: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Mahmoud El-Bendary, Gamal Esmat, Mustafa Neamatallah, Emily Kamel, Tarek Besheer, Hatem Elalfy, Maged El-Setouhy, Dalia Omran
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.45034
Abstract: Aim: Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Egyptians. The major cause is infection with HCV, with 70 000 up to 140 000 newly reported cases annually. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among household contacts of HCV index cases and to identify the possible risk factors of transmission of HCV among Egyptian families. Material and Methods: The present external pilot study (double centre study) was performed on a convenient sample of 125 index cases and their 321 household family contacts recruited from Mansoura & Cairo University where 2 questionnaires were used to collect data from the index & their related contacts. The all were exposed to clinical examinations, routine laboratory testing & screening for the prevalence of Anti-HCV antibodies. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity among household contacts of index cases was found to be 13.7% which husbands of female index cases ranked first followed by wives of male index cases (36.36% versus 17.86% respectively, P < 0.0001) while sons & daughter followed later (6.84% & 4.94% respectively). When the distribution of household contacts by risky behaviour towards index cases was investigated, it was found that significant prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies positivity was detected between household contacts reporting their index cases having haematemsis &/or bleeding wound (P < 0.05), and household contacts giving IV injection to their index cases (P < 0.05) & household contacts visiting the same dentist as the index cases (P < 0.01) when compared to household contacts not exposed to the same risk factors. Conclusion: Transmission might occur during family contact and sexual behavior.
Calcium and Dipodascopsis uninucleata
Esmat E. A. Elwy
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Growth rate and branching of D. uninucleata were correlated to the exocellular concentration of calcium in culture medium. Calcium concentrations of 1-10 mM stimulated germ tube formation and reduced the lag phase. Mycelia grew in media amended with 1-0 mM Ca2+ were highly branched and the number of cells/hypha together with the number of cells/branch significantly increased. Gametangial formation have been induced by 10-40 mM Ca2+ and the highest percent of ascus formation with the longest asci was achieved in the presence of 10mM calcium. Increasing Ca2+ ions concentration above 40 mM had no further effect on growth aspects yet concentrations higher than 160 mM were toxic and partially inhibited growth, branching and reproduction.
Effect of Certain Heavy Metals on Dipodascopsis uninucleata
Esmat E. A. Elwy Botany
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Heavy metals significantly inhibited ascospores germination, differentiation and ascus formation in Dipodascopsis uninucleata. Sliver nitrate was the most inhibitory one even at low concentration (50 ppm). Among the tested zinc salts, zinc acetate was the most effective in inhibiting growth activities. Two phenomena have been observed in the present investigation. At concentration 600 ppm of manganese nitrate, D. uninucleata grow in the form of spherical pellicles with imperfect stage of reproduction represented by conidial heads similar to that of aspergilli. High concentration (1000 ppm), produced the yeast phase of D. uinucleata.
Chaotic and Hyperchaotic Complex Jerk Equations  [PDF]
Gamal M. Mahmoud, Mansour E. Ahmed
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2012.11002
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce and investigate chaotic and hyperchaotic complex jerk equations. The jerk equations describe various phenomena in engineering and physics, for example, electrical circuits, laser physics, mechanical oscillators, damped harmonic oscillators, and biological systems. Properties of these systems are studied and their Lyapunov exponents are calculated. The dynamics of these systems is rich in wide range of systems parameters. The control of chaotic attractors of the complex jerk equation is investigated. The Lyapunov exponents are calculated to show that the chaotic behavior is converted to regular behavior.
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