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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31016 matches for " Galduróz "
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Epidemiologia do uso de álcool no Brasil
Galduróz, José Carlos F;Caetano, Raul;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462004000500002
Abstract: the authors describe the most recent and significant epidemiological studies on alcohol conducted in brazil in the last years. the aim was to outline the pattern of alcohol consumption in the country through the analysis of population surveys (household surveys, drug abuse among students, homeless children) and statistical indicators (hospital admissions for addictions, data from the institute of forensic medicine, related traffic accidents and information on sales of alcoholic beverages). the analysis of the data presented in this article suggests two basic points: greater emphasis should be laid on epidemiological studies in brazil, through increasing the scope of research, as well as its systematic updating. alcohol certainly has a strong influence in the etiology and maintenance of several social, economic and health problems faced in our country.
O uso de drogas psicotrópicas e a preven??o no Brasil
Noto,Ana Regina; Galduróz,José Carlos F.;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81231999000100012
Abstract: even though the context related to the use of psychotropic drugs in brazil is still somewhat unknown, available studies point to alcohol, tobacco and some psychotropic medications as the most used drugs and as responsible for the highest indexes of problems in our population. however, the increasing consumption of cocaine over the years is unquestionable, as well as the increase of a series of associated problems, including violence. as far as possible interventions in this scenario are concerned, the need for complementary preventive measures has been stressed. although the repressive approach has been highlighted in the last decades, studies have pointed out to the limitations of this kind of intervention. the different levels of psychotropic drugs use prevention are presented in this study, along with comments on the main approaches used and how they have been implemented in brazil.
Acute efects of the Paulinia cupana, "Guaraná" on the cognition of normal volunteers
Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes;Carlini, Elisaldo de Araújo;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801994000300007
Abstract: the authors studied the acute effects of "guaraná", when compared to caffeine and placebo, (double blind study) on cognition, anxiety and sleep in 30 normal volunteers. although results were negative it cannot be concluded that "guaraná" is harmless. other studies shall be undertaken, administering "guaraná" on a long term basis, as popularly proclaimed.
The effects of long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers
Galduróz, Jose Carlos Fernandes;Carlini, Elisaldo de Araújo;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801996000100003
Abstract: paulinia cupana (guarana) is a brazilian plant given great prestige in popular medicine, for example as being a potent stimulator of brain functions. the authors assessed the effects of the long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers. forty-five volunteers were studied, with a random distribution in three experimental groups: placebo (n=15), caffeine (n=15), and guarana (n=15), in a double-blind study. there were no significant cognitive alterations in these volunteers.
The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in alcohol dependence treatment - a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study
Marina N Foga?a, Ruth F Santos-Galduróz, Jaqueline K Eserian, José Carlos F Galduróz
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-11-10
Abstract: This was a placebo controlled, double blind, randomized study where, 80 alcohol dependent patients, according to DSM-IV, were allocated in four groups with 20 patient each: 'PUFAS', 'Naltrexone', 'Naltrexone + PUFAS' and 'Placebo'. Those substances were administered for 90 days and scales were applied to assess patients craving (OCDS) and alcohol dependence severity (SADD) at baseline and after 90 days. PUFAS serum levels were assessed before and after treatment by high performance liquid chromatography assay.Forty-three patients completed the trial. There was a significant improvement over time on drinking days, SADD and OCDS scores in all groups (p < 0.001). The drinking days comparison between groups did not show statistical significant difference. The same effect was observed for compulsion (OCDS) and severity of dependence scale (SADD). The serum levels of PUFAS increased in all the supplemented groups after treatment, although not significantly.The oral supplementation of 2 g PUFAS for 3 months did not significantly differ from placebo in reducing the amount of alcohol ingestion, or OCDS and SADD scores in a group of alcohol dependent patient.NCT01211769Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS) are unsaturated fatty acids whose carbon chain has more than one double bond per molecule. Of those, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) are known as "essential" fatty acids, as humans are unable to synthesize them.The n-3 series are derived from alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and the n-6 series, from linoleic acid (LA). The main ALA derivates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Gamma linolenic acid (GLA), dihomogamma linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the main LA products. GLA is produced from LA by the enzyme delta-6-desaturase and is further metabolized to DGLA. A small amount of DGLA can also be converted to AA by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase. Human conversion of ALA and LA to their derivates is limited, and the existence of them depe
Effects of isoflavone on the learning and memory of women in menopause: a double-blind placebo-controlled study
Santos-Galduróz, R.F.;Galduróz, J.C.F.;Facco, R.L.;Hachul, H.;Tufik, S.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2010007500104
Abstract: hormone decline is common to all women during aging and, associated with other factors, leads to cognitive impairment. its replacement enhances cognitive performance, but not all women present a clinical and family or personal history that justifies its use, mainly women with a history of cancer. the aim of this study was to determine whether a daily oral dose of 80 mg of isoflavone extract for 4 months can produce benefits in women with low hormone levels, contributing to improvement in cognitive aspects. the sample comprised 50- to 65-year-old women whose menstruation had ceased at least 1 year before and who had not undergone hormone replacement. the volunteers were allocated to two groups of 19 individuals each, i.e., isoflavone and placebo. there was a weak correlation between menopause duration and low performance in the capacity to manipulate information (central executive). we observed an increase in the capacity to integrate information in the group treated with isoflavone, but no improvement in the capacity to form new memories. we did not observe differences between groups in terms of signs and symptoms suggestive of depression according to the geriatric depression scale. our results point to a possible beneficial effect of isoflavone on some abilities of the central executive. these effects could also contribute to minimizing the impact of memory impairment. further research based on controlled clinical trials is necessary to reach consistent conclusions.
Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order
Santos-Galduróz, R.F.;Oliveira, F.G.;Galduróz, J.C.F.;Bueno, O.F.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009001000019
Abstract: the influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. the objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised and the free word recall test. the order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (p < 0.01; f = 14.6). in addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (p < 0.05; f = 9.7). also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (p < 0.01). the order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (p = 0.05; f = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (p < 0.01; f = 20.8). the more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).
Use of alcohol among the inhabitants of the 107 largest cities in Brazil - 2001
Galduróz, J.C.F.;Carlini, E.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2007000300012
Abstract: alcohol is part of the history of humanity, seemingly as a result of countless factors including the easy production of alcoholic beverages in practically all regions of the world. the authors studied aspects of the use of and the dependence on alcohol in brazil, through a household survey conducted by centro brasileiro de informa??es sobre drogas psicotrópicas (cebrid). a total of 8,589 interviews were held in 107 of the largest cities in brazil, all of them with more than 200 thousand inhabitants. the study was planned to gather information within the household environment about a stratified probabilistic sample obtained in three selection phases: 1) the censitaire sectors for each municipality, 2) a systematic randomized sampling, and 3) drafting a respondent by lot in each household to provide information. approximately 11.2% of the subjects were concerned with their own consumption of alcohol. the signs/symptoms of the syndrome of dependence evident in a greater percentage were the desire to stop or reduce the use of alcohol and to stop or reduce resorting to alcoholic beverages more often than desired, as reported by 14.5 and 9.4% of the respondents, respectively. the regions in brazil with the highest percentage of dependents were the north (16.3%) and the northeast (19.9%). according to the estimates obtained in the survey, 5.2% of the teenagers were concerned about the use of alcohol. the estimates obtained in this survey reveal a need to implant specific preventive programs for the problem of alcohol, especially for the very young.
Influence of the legislation on the advertisement of psychoactive medications in Brazil
Mastroianni, Patrícia de Carvalho;Galduróz, Jose Carlos Fernandez;Carlini, Elisaldo Araújo;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462003000300006
Abstract: objective: the regulations on the advertisement of medications aim to encourage and promote an improved health care and the rational use of medications. the objective of this paper is to evaluate the influence of three regulations on the advertisement of medications: the "export act", published in the united states in 1986; the "who's criteria", published in 1988, and the resolution 102/2000 of the collegiate board of directors of the anvisa (agência nacional de vigilancia sanitária- brazilian sanitary surveillance agency), on the advertisement of psychoactive medications. method: we collected advertisements that were published in brazilian psychiatric journals before and after the regulations were established. the contents of the advertisements were analyzed according to a program created based on the regulation's demands. results: in the 118 analyzed issues there were 199 different advertisements on 85 psychotropic drugs. we observed that, regardless the studied medication, the information about restrictions of use, such as adverse drug reactions, interactions, contraindications, warnings and precautions, does not appear very often, and when it does, its print sizes were smaller than that of the information favoring the use, such as indication, presentation and dosage. after the publication of the regulations, only 38.2% of the advertisements had all the essential technical information, and 35.3% were irregular in some way. conclusion: the data suggest that there was very little influence of the regulations on the advertisement of psychotropic drugs in brazil. consequently, other control measures are necessary in addition to the regulations.
Avalia??o da orienta??o médica sobre os efeitos colaterais de benzodiazepínicos
Auchewski, Luciana;Andreatini, Roberto;Galduróz, José Carlos F;Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen de;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462004000100008
Abstract: objectives: benzodiazepines are among the most prescribed drugs indicated as anxiolytics, hypnotics, myorrelaxants or antiepileptics. their main side effects are: reduced psychomotor activities, interaction to other drugs, like alcohol, and the development of dependence. in the present study it was evaluated the quality of the medical directions given to patients about those side effects. methods: one hundred and twenty patients (39 men and 81 women), mean age of 48 years old, who visited pharmacies in curitiba to buy prescribed benzodiazepines, were interviewed by an open or directive questionnaire designed to obtain the medical directions about benzodiazepines side effects. results: directions about the three main benzodiazepines side effects were observed only in 13% of the patients, 27% had received at least two and 40% only one, while 19% reported no directions. it suggested that the medical orientation was precarious and its quality was not influenced by the patients' educational level, the kind of medical attendance or the specialty of the physician. the main orientation cited was ''don't drink'' (85%), followed by ''don't drive or operate machines'' (46%), while few orientations about the risk to develop dependence on benzodiazepines was observed (31%). conclusion: this suggests that physicians were worried about the alcohol interaction risk, which can be dangerous for the patients. the high number of patients using benzodiazepines continuously for more than one year (61%), the unsuccessfully attempt to stop using bzd (94%) and the poor information about the duration of the treatment (22%) were all related to the low medical worry about dependence on benzodiazepines.
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