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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 468143 matches for " Gajendra P. S. Raghava "
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Designing of Highly Effective Complementary and Mismatch siRNAs for Silencing a Gene
Firoz Ahmed, Gajendra P. S. Raghava
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023443
Abstract: In past, numerous methods have been developed for predicting efficacy of short interfering RNA (siRNA). However these methods have been developed for predicting efficacy of fully complementary siRNA against a gene. Best of author's knowledge no method has been developed for predicting efficacy of mismatch siRNA against a gene. In this study, a systematic attempt has been made to identify highly effective complementary as well as mismatch siRNAs for silencing a gene. Support vector machine (SVM) based models have been developed for predicting efficacy of siRNAs using composition, binary and hybrid pattern siRNAs. We achieved maximum correlation 0.67 between predicted and actual efficacy of siRNAs using hybrid model. All models were trained and tested on a dataset of 2182 siRNAs and performance was evaluated using five-fold cross validation techniques. The performance of our method desiRm is comparable to other well-known methods. In this study, first time attempt has been made to design mutant siRNAs (mismatch siRNAs). In this approach we mutated a given siRNA on all possible sites/positions with all possible nucleotides. Efficacy of each mutated siRNA is predicted using our method desiRm. It is well known from literature that mismatches between siRNA and target affects the silencing efficacy. Thus we have incorporated the rules derived from base mismatches experimental data to find out over all efficacy of mutated or mismatch siRNAs. Finally we developed a webserver, desiRm (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/desirm/) for designing highly effective siRNA for silencing a gene. This tool will be helpful to design siRNA to degrade disease isoform of heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphism gene without depleting the wild type protein.
Hybrid Approach for Predicting Coreceptor Used by HIV-1 from Its V3 Loop Amino Acid Sequence
Ravi Kumar, Gajendra P. S. Raghava
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061437
Abstract: Background HIV-1 infects the host cell by interacting with the primary receptor CD4 and a coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist binds to CCR5 receptor. Thus, it is important to identify the coreceptor used by the HIV strains dominating in the patient. In past, a number of experimental assays and in-silico techniques have been developed for predicting the coreceptor tropism. The prediction accuracy of these methods is excellent when predicting CCR5(R5) tropic sequences but is relatively poor for CXCR4(X4) tropic sequences. Therefore, any new method for accurate determination of coreceptor usage would be of paramount importance to the successful management of HIV-infected individuals. Results The dataset used in this study comprised 1799 R5-tropic and 598 X4-tropic third variable (V3) sequences of HIV-1. We compared the amino acid composition of both types of V3 sequences and observed that certain types of residues, e.g., Asparagine and Isoleucine, were preferred in R5-tropic sequences whereas residues like Lysine, Arginine, and Tryptophan were preferred in X4-tropic sequences. Initially, Support Vector Machine-based models were developed using amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, and split amino acid composition, which achieved accuracy up to 90%. We used BLAST to discriminate R5- and X4-tropic sequences and correctly predicted 93.16% of R5- and 75.75% of X4-tropic sequences. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, a Hybrid model was developed that achieved 91.66% sensitivity, 81.77% specificity, 89.19% accuracy and 0.72 Matthews Correlation Coefficient. The performance of our models was also evaluated on an independent dataset (256 R5- and 81 X4-tropic sequences) and achieved maximum accuracy of 84.87% with Matthews Correlation Coefficient 0.63. Conclusion This study describes a highly efficient method for predicting HIV-1 coreceptor usage from V3 sequences. In order to provide a service to the scientific community, a webserver HIVcoPred was developed (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/hivcopr?ed/) for predicting the coreceptor usage.
Prediction of vitamin interacting residues in a vitamin binding protein using evolutionary information
Panwar Bharat,Gupta Sudheer,Raghava Gajendra P S
BMC Bioinformatics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-44
Abstract: Background The vitamins are important cofactors in various enzymatic-reactions. In past, many inhibitors have been designed against vitamin binding pockets in order to inhibit vitamin-protein interactions. Thus, it is important to identify vitamin interacting residues in a protein. It is possible to detect vitamin-binding pockets on a protein, if its tertiary structure is known. Unfortunately tertiary structures of limited proteins are available. Therefore, it is important to develop in-silico models for predicting vitamin interacting residues in protein from its primary structure. Results In this study, first we compared protein-interacting residues of vitamins with other ligands using Two Sample Logo (TSL). It was observed that ATP, GTP, NAD, FAD and mannose preferred {G,R,K,S,H}, {G,K,T,S,D,N}, {T,G,Y}, {G,Y,W} and {Y,D,W,N,E} residues respectively, whereas vitamins preferred {Y,F,S,W,T,G,H} residues for the interaction with proteins. Furthermore, compositional information of preferred and non-preferred residues along with patterns-specificity was also observed within different vitamin-classes. Vitamins A, B and B6 preferred {F,I,W,Y,L,V}, {S,Y,G,T,H,W,N,E} and {S,T,G,H,Y,N} interacting residues respectively. It suggested that protein-binding patterns of vitamins are different from other ligands, and motivated us to develop separate predictor for vitamins and their sub-classes. The four different prediction modules, (i) vitamin interacting residues (VIRs), (ii) vitamin-A interacting residues (VAIRs), (iii) vitamin-B interacting residues (VBIRs) and (iv) pyridoxal-5-phosphate (vitamin B6) interacting residues (PLPIRs) have been developed. We applied various classifiers of SVM, BayesNet, NaiveBayes, ComplementNaiveBayes, NaiveBayesMultinomial, RandomForest and IBk etc., as machine learning techniques, using binary and Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) features of protein sequences. Finally, we selected best performing SVM modules and obtained highest MCC of 0.53, 0.48, 0.61, 0.81 for VIRs, VAIRs, VBIRs, PLPIRs respectively, using PSSM-based evolutionary information. All the modules developed in this study have been trained and tested on non-redundant datasets and evaluated using five-fold cross-validation technique. The performances were also evaluated on the balanced and different independent datasets. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it is possible to predict VIRs, VAIRs, VBIRs and PLPIRs from evolutionary information of protein sequence. In order to provide service to the scientific community, we have developed web-server and
In silico Platform for Prediction of N-, O- and C-Glycosites in Eukaryotic Protein Sequences
Jagat Singh Chauhan, Alka Rao, Gajendra P. S. Raghava
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067008
Abstract: Glycosylation is one of the most abundant and an important post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylated proteins (glycoproteins) are involved in various cellular biological functions like protein folding, cell-cell interactions, cell recognition and host-pathogen interactions. A large number of eukaryotic glycoproteins also have therapeutic and potential technology applications. Therefore, characterization and analysis of glycosites (glycosylated residues) in these proteins is of great interest to biologists. In order to cater these needs a number of in silico tools have been developed over the years, however, a need to get even better prediction tools remains. Therefore, in this study we have developed a new webserver GlycoEP for more accurate prediction of N-linked, O-linked and C-linked glycosites in eukaryotic glycoproteins using two larger datasets, namely, standard and advanced datasets. In case of standard datasets no two glycosylated proteins are more similar than 40%; advanced datasets are highly non-redundant where no two glycosites’ patterns (as defined in methods) have more than 60% similarity. Further, based on our results with several algorihtms developed using different machine-learning techniques, we found Support Vector Machine (SVM) as optimum tool to develop glycosite prediction models. Accordingly, using our more stringent and non-redundant advanced datasets, the SVM based models developed in this study achieved a prediction accuracy of 84.26%, 86.87% and 91.43% with corresponding MCC of 0.54, 0.20 and 0.78, for N-, O- and C-linked glycosites, respectively. The best performing models trained on advanced datasets were then implemented as a user-friendly web server GlycoEP (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/glycoep?/). Additionally, this server provides prediction models developed on standard datasets and allows users to scan sequons in input protein sequences.
Improved Method for Linear B-Cell Epitope Prediction Using Antigen’s Primary Sequence
Harinder Singh, Hifzur Rahman Ansari, Gajendra P. S. Raghava
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062216
Abstract: One of the major challenges in designing a peptide-based vaccine is the identification of antigenic regions in an antigen that can stimulate B-cell’s response, also called B-cell epitopes. In the past, several methods have been developed for the prediction of conformational and linear (or continuous) B-cell epitopes. However, the existing methods for predicting linear B-cell epitopes are far from perfection. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop an improved method for predicting linear B-cell epitopes. We have retrieved experimentally validated B-cell epitopes as well as non B-cell epitopes from Immune Epitope Database and derived two types of datasets called Lbtope_Variable and Lbtope_Fixed length datasets. The Lbtope_Variable dataset contains 14876 B-cell epitope and 23321 non-epitopes of variable length where as Lbtope_Fixed length dataset contains 12063 B-cell epitopes and 20589 non-epitopes of fixed length. We also evaluated the performance of models on above datasets after removing highly identical peptides from the datasets. In addition, we have derived third dataset Lbtope_Confirm having 1042 epitopes and 1795 non-epitopes where each epitope or non-epitope has been experimentally validated in at least two studies. A number of models have been developed to discriminate epitopes and non-epitopes using different machine-learning techniques like Support Vector Machine, and K-Nearest Neighbor. We achieved accuracy from ~54% to 86% using diverse s features like binary profile, dipeptide composition, AAP (amino acid pair) profile. In this study, for the first time experimentally validated non B-cell epitopes have been used for developing method for predicting linear B-cell epitopes. In previous studies, random peptides have been used as non B-cell epitopes. In order to provide service to scientific community, a web server LBtope has been developed for predicting and designing B-cell epitopes (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/lbtope/).
GlycoPP: A Webserver for Prediction of N- and O-Glycosites in Prokaryotic Protein Sequences
Jagat S. Chauhan, Adil H. Bhat, Gajendra P. S. Raghava, Alka Rao
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040155
Abstract: Glycosylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications (PTMs) required for various structure/function modulations of proteins in a living cell. Although elucidated recently in prokaryotes, this type of PTM is present across all three domains of life. In prokaryotes, two types of protein glycan linkages are more widespread namely, N- linked, where a glycan moiety is attached to the amide group of Asn, and O- linked, where a glycan moiety is attached to the hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr/Tyr. For their biologically ubiquitous nature, significance, and technology applications, the study of prokaryotic glycoproteins is a fast emerging area of research. Here we describe new Support Vector Machine (SVM) based algorithms (models) developed for predicting glycosylated-residues (glycosites) with high accuracy in prokaryotic protein sequences. The models are based on binary profile of patterns, composition profile of patterns, and position-specific scoring matrix profile of patterns as training features. The study employ an extensive dataset of 107 N-linked and 116 O-linked glycosites extracted from 59 experimentally characterized glycoproteins of prokaryotes. This dataset includes validated N-glycosites from phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota (domain Archaea), Proteobacteria (domain Bacteria) and validated O-glycosites from phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (domain Bacteria). In view of the current understanding that glycosylation occurs on folded proteins in bacteria, hybrid models have been developed using information on predicted secondary structures and accessible surface area in various combinations with training features. Using these models, N-glycosites and O-glycosites could be predicted with an accuracy of 82.71% (MCC 0.65) and 73.71% (MCC 0.48), respectively. An evaluation of the best performing models with 28 independent prokaryotic glycoproteins confirms the suitability of these models in predicting N- and O-glycosites in potential glycoproteins from aforementioned organisms, with reasonably high confidence. A web server GlycoPP, implementing these models is available freely at http:/www.imtech.res.in/raghava/glycopp/.
Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans
Anastas Pashov,Bejatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Gajendra P. S. Raghava,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/354068
Abstract: Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies.
HIVsirDB: A Database of HIV Inhibiting siRNAs
Atul Tyagi, Firoz Ahmed, Nishant Thakur, Arun Sharma, Gajendra P. S. Raghava, Manoj Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025917
Abstract: Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for millions of deaths every year. The current treatment involves the use of multiple antiretroviral agents that may harm patients due to their toxic nature. RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent candidate for the future treatment of HIV, uses short interfering RNA (siRNA/shRNA) for silencing HIV genes. In this study, attempts have been made to create a database HIVsirDB of siRNAs responsible for silencing HIV genes. Descriptions HIVsirDB is a manually curated database of HIV inhibiting siRNAs that provides comprehensive information about each siRNA or shRNA. Information was collected and compiled from literature and public resources. This database contains around 750 siRNAs that includes 75 partially complementary siRNAs differing by one or more bases with the target sites and over 100 escape mutant sequences. HIVsirDB structure contains sixteen fields including siRNA sequence, HIV strain, targeted genome region, efficacy and conservation of target sequences. In order to facilitate user, many tools have been integrated in this database that includes; i) siRNAmap for mapping siRNAs on target sequence, ii) HIVsirblast for BLAST search against database, iii) siRNAalign for aligning siRNAs. Conclusion HIVsirDB is a freely accessible database of siRNAs which can silence or degrade HIV genes. It covers 26 types of HIV strains and 28 cell types. This database will be very useful for developing models for predicting efficacy of HIV inhibiting siRNAs. In summary this is a useful resource for researchers working in the field of siRNA based HIV therapy. HIVsirDB database is accessible at http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/hivsir/.
Identification of Mannose Interacting Residues Using Local Composition
Sandhya Agarwal, Nitish Kumar Mishra, Harinder Singh, Gajendra P. S. Raghava
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024039
Abstract: Background Mannose binding proteins (MBPs) play a vital role in several biological functions such as defense mechanisms. These proteins bind to mannose on the surface of a wide range of pathogens and help in eliminating these pathogens from our body. Thus, it is important to identify mannose interacting residues (MIRs) in order to understand mechanism of recognition of pathogens by MBPs. Results This paper describes modules developed for predicting MIRs in a protein. Support vector machine (SVM) based models have been developed on 120 mannose binding protein chains, where no two chains have more than 25% sequence similarity. SVM models were developed on two types of datasets: 1) main dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 1029 non-interacting residues, 2) realistic dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 10320 non-interacting residues. In this study, firstly, we developed standard modules using binary and PSSM profile of patterns and got maximum MCC around 0.32. Secondly, we developed SVM modules using composition profile of patterns and achieved maximum MCC around 0.74 with accuracy 86.64% on main dataset. Thirdly, we developed a model on a realistic dataset and achieved maximum MCC of 0.62 with accuracy 93.08%. Based on this study, a standalone program and web server have been developed for predicting mannose interacting residues in proteins (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/premier?/). Conclusions Compositional analysis of mannose interacting and non-interacting residues shows that certain types of residues are preferred in mannose interaction. It was also observed that residues around mannose interacting residues have a preference for certain types of residues. Composition of patterns/peptide/segment has been used for predicting MIRs and achieved reasonable high accuracy. It is possible that this novel strategy may be effective to predict other types of interacting residues. This study will be useful in annotating the function of protein as well as in understanding the role of mannose in the immune system.
PolysacDB: A Database of Microbial Polysaccharide Antigens and Their Antibodies
Abhijit Aithal, Arun Sharma, Shilpy Joshi, Gajendra P. S. Raghava, Grish C. Varshney
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034613
Abstract: Vaccines based on microbial cell surface polysaccharides have long been considered as attractive means to control infectious diseases. To realize this goal, detailed systematic information about the antigenic polysaccharide is necessary. However, only a few databases that provide limited knowledge in this area are available. This paper describes PolysacDB, a manually curated database of antigenic polysaccharides. We collected and compiled comprehensive information from literature and web resources about antigenic polysaccharides of microbial origin. The current version of the database has 1,554 entries of 149 different antigenic polysaccharides from 347 different microbes. Each entry provides comprehensive information about an antigenic polysaccharide, i.e., its origin, function, protocols for its conjugation to carriers, antibodies produced, details of assay systems, specificities of antibodies, proposed epitopes involved and antibody utilities. For convenience to the user, we have integrated web interface for searching, advanced searching and browsing data in database. This database will be useful for researchers working on polysaccharide-based vaccines. It is freely available from the URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/polysacdb/.
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