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Engineered cellular carrier nanoerythrosomes as potential targeting vectors for anti-malarial drug
Agnihotri Jaya,Gajbhiye Virendra,Jain Narendra
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The present investigation was aimed at developing and exploring the use of nanoerythrosomes (nEs) for targeted delivery of anti-malarial drug, pyrimethamine (PMA). The formulation was prepared by the extrusion method and drug was conjugated to nEs with the help of gluteraldehyde used as a cross-linking agent. The nEs formulation was optimized for drug concentration, surface morphology, viscosity, and sedimentation volume. The drug-loaded nEs showed delayed in vitro release, good stability at 4±1°C, and controlled in vivo release. Tissue distribution studies showed higher accumulation of drug in liver (17.34±1.3 μg/ml) at 3 h in the case of nEs as compared to free drug (12.82±0.7 μg/ml). A higher amount of drug i.e. 13.14±0.9 μg/ml was found after 24 h in liver in the case of nEs as compared to free drug concentration of 9.72±0.5 μg/ml. Data showed that developed PMA-loaded nEs hold promise for targeting and controlling the release of drug and improve treatment of malaria.
Silver Nanoparticles in Cosmetics  [PDF]
Swati Gajbhiye, Satish Sakharwade
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2016.61007
Abstract: This review is presented as a common interest in silver nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and toxicity in cosmetic. The application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturizer, hair care products, makeup and sunscreen. Nanomaterials are now being used in leading cosmetics products, most commonly as chemicals used to give the protection. A silver nanoparticle is the potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. This review paper looks into use of nano silver and provides an overview of current activity in this area.
Tobacco use among medical students and surrogate control of tobacco in India
Singh Virendra
Lung India , 2011,
Abstract:
From Editors′ Desk
Singh Virendra
Lung India , 2010,
Abstract:
From the Editor′s desk
Singh Virendra
Lung India , 2010,
Abstract:
Burnt Wives : An Epidemiological Review
Kumar Virendra
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2002,
Abstract:
Presidential address
Sehgal Virendra
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1992,
Abstract:
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW
Virendra Yadav
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to synthetic ones (Polybutadiene, Polysiloxane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl alcohol etc.). TDDS are of many types varying from single layer drug in adhesive to multi layer drug in adhesive and others are reservoir and the matrix systems. The market value of TDDS products are increasing with rapid rate, more than 35 products have now been approved for sale in US, and approximately 16 active ingredients are approved globally for use as a TDDS. Transdermal drug delivery is a recent technology which promises a great future it has a potential to limit the use of needles for administering wide variety of drugs but cost factor is a important thing to consider since developing nations like INDIA have second highest population, but due to higher cost TDDS are the hidden part of therapy used in general population.
Scientific Realism and Classical Physics
Virendra Singh
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: We recount the successful long career of classical physics, from Newton to Einstein, which was based on the philosophy of scientific realism. Special emphasis is given to the changing status and number of ontological entitities and arguments for their necessity at any time. Newton, initially, began with (i) point particles, (ii) aether, (iii) absolute space and (iv) absolute time. The electromagnetic theory of Maxwell and Faraday introduced `fields' as a new ontological entity not reducible to earlier ones. Their work also unified electricity, magnetism and optics. Repeated failure to observe the motion of earth through aether led Einstein to modify the Newtonian absolute space and time concepts to a fused Minkowski space-time and the removal of aether from basic ontological entities in his special theory of relativity. Later Einstein in his attempts to give a local theory of gravitation was led to further modify flat Minkowski space-time to the curved Riemannian space time. This reduced gravitational phenomenon to that of geometry of the space time. Space-time, matter and fields all became dynamical. We also abstract some general features of description of nature in classical physics and enquire whether these could be features of any scientific description?
Bohm's realist interpretation of Quantum mechanics
Virendra Singh
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: A brief account of the world view of classical physics is given first. We then recapitulate as to why the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum mechanics had to renounce most of the attractive features of the clasical world view such as a causal description, locality, scientific realism and introduce a fundamental distinction between system and apparatus. The crucial role is played in this by the Bohr's insistence on the wavefunction providing the most complete description possible for an even individual system. The alternative of introducing extra dynamical variables, called hidden variables, in addition to the wavefunction of the system so as to be able to retain at least some of the desirable features of classical physics, is then explored. The first such successful attempt was that of Bohm in 1952 who showed that a realistic interpretation of the quantum mechanics can be given which maintains a causal description as well as does not treat systems and measuring appeartus differently. We begin with the construction of the Bohm's theory. He introduces particle positions as the hidden variables. The particle positions play a special role in Bohm theory. The particle trajectories are guided by the wavefunction. The Bohm theory is deterministic. The probability enters through a special assumption, ``quantum equilibrium'' hypothesis, for the initial conditions on the ensemble of particle trajectories. The ``wave or particle'' dilemma is resolved by a ``wave and particle'' resolution. The measurements in Bohm theory can be described without mysticism. Bohm's theory is however nonlocal.
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