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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462383 matches for " Gail A. Shammas "
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Age Differences in Long Term Outcomes of Coronary Patients Treated with Drug Eluting Stents at a Tertiary Medical Center
Nicolas W. Shammas,Gail A. Shammas,Peter Sharis,Michael Jerin
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/471026
Abstract: We evaluate differences in outcomes in younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) patients for target lesion failure (TLF) at 2-year follow-up in an unselected consecutive series of patients treated with the everolimus- (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting (PES) stents at a tertiary medical center. 348 consecutive patients (younger 150; older 198) stented with the EES and PES were retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint was TLF (composite endpoint of cardiac death, non fatal myocardial infarction due to index vessel and target lesion revascularization (TLR)). At 2 years follow up, younger versus older patients had the following outcomes respectively: TLF 27.7% versus 25.5% ( ), TLR 24.8% versus 21.4% ( ), cardiac death 3.4% versus 2.5% ( ) and definite and probable stent thrombosis (2.0% versus 1.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that renal failure (odds ratio: 2.55, ), number of stents per patient (odds ratio: 1.60, ) and younger age (odds ratio: 0.97; ), but not gender, diabetes or type of DES stent (EES versus PES) predicted TLF. We conclude that older age was not a predictor of TLF at 2-year follow-up after adjusting for renal insufficiency, number of stents used per patient, gender, diabetes and type of DES used. 1. Introduction There is a relative paucity of data on clinical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with drug eluting stents (DESs). Elderly patients have been frequently excluded from randomized clinical trials because of multiple comorbidities making available data on DES difficult to generalize to older patients [1]. Several reports indicated that older age (>65 years old and particularly >75 years old) is an independent predictor of adverse events after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with higher inhospital vascular complications and cardiac death [2, 3] and higher long term cardiac mortality [4]. Other reports suggested that older age, after adjusting for various clinical and procedural variables, does not appear to independently predict adverse early or late outcomes after PCI [5, 6]. The paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) Taxus Liberte (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) and the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) Xience (or Promus) (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) are drug eluting stents (DESs) that showed lower TVR than bare metal stents (BMSs) irrespective of age, although higher mortality and myocardial infarction seem to increase with higher age groups [7]. In this report, we examine our own data for differences between younger (<65 years) and older (≥65
Presence of the Potato Late Blight Resistance Gene RB Does Not Promote Adaptive Parasitism of Phytophthora infestans  [PDF]
Dennis A. Halterman, Gail Middleton
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.33043
Abstract: The gene RB is derived from the wild potato species S. bulbocastanum and confers partial resistance to late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In order to investigate whether a single strain of P. infestans can adapt to overcome this partial resistance source, we subjected RB containing leaflets to multiple rounds of infection with P. infestans, with a culture isolated from a lesion used to infect the next leaflet (a passage). A parallel line of passages was done using susceptible leaflets as hosts. At the end of the experiment, P. infestans strains passaged through resistant or susceptible leaflets were compared for infection efficiency and lesion size. Variants of the P. infestans effector family IPI-O, some of which are recognized by the RB protein to elicit resistance, were cloned and sequenced to determine whether variation occurred during selection on the partially resistant host. Our results show that after 20 rounds of selection, no breakdown in RB resistance took place. In fact, the strain that was continually passaged through the partially resistant host produced smaller lesions on susceptible leaflets and had a lower infection frequency than the strain passaged through susceptible cultivar Katahdin. No changes within IPI-O coding regions were detected after selection on the hosts with RB. Our results indicate that individual strains of P. infestans are not capable of rapidly overcoming RB resistance even when it is the only host available.
Outcomes of patients treated with the everolimus-eluting stent versus the zotarolimus-eluting stent in a consecutive cohort of patients at a tertiary medical center
Shammas NW, Shammas GA , Nader E, Jerin M, Mrad L, Marogil P, Henn C, Dvorak A, Chintalapani A, Meriner S
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S30122
Abstract: tcomes of patients treated with the everolimus-eluting stent versus the zotarolimus-eluting stent in a consecutive cohort of patients at a tertiary medical center Original Research (1989) Total Article Views Authors: Shammas NW, Shammas GA , Nader E, Jerin M, Mrad L, Marogil P, Henn C, Dvorak A, Chintalapani A, Meriner S Published Date April 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 205 - 211 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S30122 Received: 22 January 2012 Accepted: 09 March 2012 Published: 11 April 2012 Nicolas W Shammas, Gail A Shammas, Elie Nader, Michael Jerin, Luay Mrad, Peter Marogil, Courtney Henn, Alex Dvorak, Archana Chintalapani, Susan Meriner Midwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Davenport, IA, USA Background: In this study we compared the outcomes of the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) versus the zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) in patients treated at a tertiary medical center, with up to one year of follow-up. Methods: Unselected consecutive patients were retrospectively recruited following stenting with the ZES (n = 197) or EES (n = 190). The first 100 consecutive patients in each cohort underwent syntax scoring. The primary endpoint of the study was target vessel failure, defined as the combined endpoint of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization. Secondary endpoints included target lesion revascularization, target lesion failure, acute stent thrombosis, total death, cardiac death, and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Results: The two groups were similar, including for Syntax scores (19.6 ± 12.8 versus 20.6 ± 13.6), number of stents per patient (2.9 ± 1.9 versus 2.9 ± 2.1), and cardiovascular risk factors. By one year, the primary outcome occurred in 20.8% EES versus 26.7% ZES (P = 0.19) patients. The secondary endpoints were as follows: target lesion revascularization (8.9% versus 20.6%, P = 0.003), target vessel revascularization (18.9% versus 25.6%, P = 0.142), definite and probable stent thrombosis (0% versus 2.5%), non-fatal myocardial infarction (2.7% versus 3.6%), and mortality (3.2% versus 5.1%) for the EES versus the ZES, respectively. Conclusion: EES had similar target vessel failure to ZES, but superior target lesion revascularization and target lesion failure at one year of follow-up in an unselected cohort of patients.
Underreporting of Energy Intake in Iraqi People Living in the UK According to Body Weight  [PDF]
Wassan A. Ahmed, Waleed Al-Murrani, Gail A. Rees
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33046
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that underreporting of energy intake is common when assessing dietary intake, particularly in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study was to obtain an estimate of energy and macronutrient intake according to weight status and to investigate underreporting among Iraqi people living in the UK. Twenty eight adult volunteers (n = 16 males) were recruited. Dietary intake was estimated 3 times using the 24 hour dietary recall tech-nique. Portion size was estimated using household measures and the Photographic Atlas of Food Portion Sizes. Energy and macronutrients estimations were calculated, and weight and height were measured to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Energy intake was compared to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR) and the Goldberg equation was used to assess underreporting. Of the overall sample, 57.1% (n = 16) and 21.4% (n = 6) subjects were overweight and obese, respectively. The mean energy intakes were low for males (1977 kcal/d) and females (1586 kcal/d). The percentage of under-reporters was high (57.1%) and this was higher in overweight and obese subjects (68.1%) compared to those of normal weight (4.5%). Overweight and obesity are common among well-educated Iraqi people. Underreporting of energy intake is common especially among overweight and obese Iraqi individuals.
Gradual shortness of breath
Alkoteesh Jamal,Shammas Amer
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2007,
Abstract:
Unusual cause of a lung mass
Alkoteesh Jamal,Shammas Amer
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2007,
Abstract:
Telomerase inhibition by siRNA causes senescence and apoptosis in Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells: mechanism and therapeutic potential
Masood A Shammas, Hemanta Koley, Ramesh B Batchu, Robert C Bertheau, Alexei Protopopov, Nikhil C Munshi, Raj K Goyal
Molecular Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-4-24
Abstract: We designed siRNAs against two different regions of telomerase gene and evaluated their effect on telomere length, proliferative potential, and gene expression in Barrett's adenocarcinoma SEG-1 cells. The mixture of siRNAs in nanomolar concentrations caused a loss of telomerase activity that appeared as early as day 1 and was essentially complete at day 3. Inhibition of telomerase activity was associated with marked reduction in median telomere length and complete loss of detectable telomeres in more than 50% of the treated cells. Telomere loss caused senescence in 40% and apoptosis in 86% of the treated cells. These responses appeared to be associated with activation of DNA sensor HR23B and subsequent activation of p53 homolog p73 and p63 and E2F1. Changes in these gene regulators were probably the source of observed up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, p16 and GADD45. Elevated transcript levels of FasL, Fas and caspase 8 that activate death receptors and CARD 9 that interacts with Bcl10 and NFKB to enhance mitochondrial translocation and activation of caspase 9 were also observed.These studies show that telomerase siRNAs can cause effective suppression of telomerase and telomere shortening leading to both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mechanisms that include up-regulation of several genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Telomerase siRNAs may therefore be strong candidates for highly selective therapy for chemoprevention and treatment of Barrett's adenocarcinoma.Senescence and apoptosis normally counteract cancer development and ability of cancer cells to disrupt these processes is 'lifeline' of cancer [1]. Oncogenes such as ras and myc can not induce oncogenesis unless intracellular mediators of senescence and apoptosis are disrupted. Most anticancer agents act by stimulating intracellular mechanisms for cellular senescence and apoptosis; they do not simply destroy them directly. The ability of these drugs to reactivate the normal or activate
Outcomes of patients treated with the everolimus-eluting stent versus the zotarolimus-eluting stent in a consecutive cohort of patients at a tertiary medical center
Shammas NW,Shammas GA,Nader E,Jerin M
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2012,
Abstract: Nicolas W Shammas, Gail A Shammas, Elie Nader, Michael Jerin, Luay Mrad, Peter Marogil, Courtney Henn, Alex Dvorak, Archana Chintalapani, Susan MerinerMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Davenport, IA, USABackground: In this study we compared the outcomes of the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) versus the zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) in patients treated at a tertiary medical center, with up to one year of follow-up.Methods: Unselected consecutive patients were retrospectively recruited following stenting with the ZES (n = 197) or EES (n = 190). The first 100 consecutive patients in each cohort underwent syntax scoring. The primary endpoint of the study was target vessel failure, defined as the combined endpoint of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization. Secondary endpoints included target lesion revascularization, target lesion failure, acute stent thrombosis, total death, cardiac death, and non-fatal myocardial infarction.Results: The two groups were similar, including for Syntax scores (19.6 ± 12.8 versus 20.6 ± 13.6), number of stents per patient (2.9 ± 1.9 versus 2.9 ± 2.1), and cardiovascular risk factors. By one year, the primary outcome occurred in 20.8% EES versus 26.7% ZES (P = 0.19) patients. The secondary endpoints were as follows: target lesion revascularization (8.9% versus 20.6%, P = 0.003), target vessel revascularization (18.9% versus 25.6%, P = 0.142), definite and probable stent thrombosis (0% versus 2.5%), non-fatal myocardial infarction (2.7% versus 3.6%), and mortality (3.2% versus 5.1%) for the EES versus the ZES, respectively.Conclusion: EES had similar target vessel failure to ZES, but superior target lesion revascularization and target lesion failure at one year of follow-up in an unselected cohort of patients.Keywords: coronary stent, drug eluting stent, zotarolimus, everolimus, outcome, target lesion revascularization, stent thrombosis
The Presence but not the Location of an Appendicolith Affects the Success of Interval Appendectomy in Children with Ruptured Appendicitis  [PDF]
Iyore A. James, Stephen Druhan, Donna A. Caniano, Gail E. Besner
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.22009
Abstract: Purpose: To determine whether the presence and/or location of an appendicolith can predict failure of initial non-operative management in children with ruptured appendicitis. Methods: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients presenting with ruptured appendicitis was performed. Patients in whom the intent to treat was with initial non-operative management and interval appendectomy (IA) were selected (n = 117). One patient was excluded due to the presence of both intraluminal and extraluminal appendicoliths. Children who failed initial non-operative management were assigned to the “failure” group (n = 22). Children that improved and underwent elective IA were assigned to the “success” group (n = 94). Age, gender, duration of symptoms, presence of an appendicolith, appendicolith location (intraluminal/extraluminal), presence of a drainable abscess, and complications were reviewed. Results: There was an overall 18.8% failure rate for IA. Patients with an appendicolith had a 41.7% failure rate, and patients without an appendicolith had a 13% failure rate (p = 0.003). Patients with intraluminal or extraluminal appendicoliths each had a 41.7% failure rate. The presence or absence of a drainable in-tra-abdominal abscess did not affect the failure rate. Children in the failure group presented to the hospital earlier (6.57 ± 2.59 vs. 10.02 ± 7.21 days; p = 0.030). Conclusions: The presence of an appendicolith increases the likelihood of failure of initial non-operative management of ruptured appendicitis in children; however, the location of the appendicolith is not a predictor of failure.
Roles of the Kinase TAK1 in TRAF6-Dependent Signaling by CD40 and Its Oncogenic Viral Mimic, LMP1
Kelly M. Arcipowski,Gail A. Bishop
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042478
Abstract: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded protein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is essential for EBV-mediated B cell transformation and plays a critical role in the development of post-transplant B cell lymphomas. LMP1 also contributes to the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). LMP1 is a functional mimic of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily member CD40, and relies on TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins to mediate signaling. However, LMP1 activation signals to the B cell are amplified and sustained compared to CD40 signals. We previously demonstrated that LMP1 and CD40 use TRAF molecules differently. Although associating with CD40 and LMP1 via separate mechanisms, TRAF6 plays a significant role in signal transduction by both. It is unknown whether TRAF6 mediates CD40 versus LMP1 functions via distinct or shared pathways. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRAF6 uses the kinase TAK1 to trigger important signaling pathways following both CD40 and LMP1 stimulation. We determined that TAK1 was required for JNK activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production mediated by CD40 and LMP1, in both mouse and human B cells. Additionally, TRAF3 negatively regulated TRAF6-dependent, CD40-mediated TAK1 activation by limiting TRAF6 recruitment. This mode of regulation was not observed for LMP1 and may contribute to the dysregulation of LMP1 compared to CD40 signals.
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