Abstract:
In recent studies of methanol masers, a substantial fraction of the objects show maser components aligned in large-scale elliptical configurations. These can be readily interpreted as rings centred on a high mass star in formation, seen in projection. Remarkably, most of these rings do not show signs of rotation, but rather the radial motions dominate. This must mean that their dynamics are governed by other than gravitational forces. In particular, we have studied the methanol masers around Cep A in detail, where it can be argued that the methanol masers show signs of infall. In this paper we discuss the dynamics of the Cep A methanol maser and sources from the Torun blind survey to argue that at least in a fraction of sources methanol masers could be associated with the shock interface between the large scale accretion, regulated by the magnetic field, and a 1000-AU scale circumstellar disk. We discuss the validity of such a model for the overall population of methanol maser sources.

Abstract:
We present Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of 22 GHz H$_2$O masers in the high-mass star-forming region of \objectname{W75N}, carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) for three-epochs in 2007 with an angular resolution of $\sim$ 1 mas. We detected H$_2$O maser emission toward the radio jet in VLA 1 and the expanding shell-like structure in VLA 2. We have made elliptical fits to the VLA 2 H$_2$O maser shell-like structure observed in the different epochs (1999, 2005, and 2007), and found that the shell is still expanding eight years after its discovery. From the difference in the size of the semi-major axes of the fitted ellipses in the epochs 1999 ($\simeq$ 71$\pm$1 mas), 2005 ($\simeq$ 97$\pm$3 mas), and 2007 ($\simeq$ 111$\pm$1 mas), we estimate an average expanding velocity of $\sim$ 5 mas yr$^{-1}$, similar to the proper motions measured in the individual H$_2$O maser features. A kinematic age of $\sim$ 20 yr is derived for this structure. In addition, our VERA observations indicate an increase in the ellipticity of the expanding shell around VLA 2 from epochs 1999 to 2007. In fact, the elliptical fit of the VERA data shows a ratio between the minor and major axes of $\sim$ 0.6, in contrast with a most circular shape for the shell detected in 1999 and 2005 (b/a $\sim$ 0.9). This suggests that we are probably observing the formation of a jet-driven H$_2$O maser structure in VLA2, evolving from a non-collimated pulsed-outflow event during the first stages of evolution of a massive young stellar object (YSO). This may support predictions made earlier by other authors on this issue, consistent with recent magnetohydrodynamical simulations. We discuss possible implications of our results in the study of the first stages of evolution of massive YSOs.

Abstract:
The measurement of Zeeman splitting in spectral lines---both in emission and absorption---can provide direct estimates of the magnetic field strength and direction in atomic and molecular clouds, both in our own Milky Way and in external galaxies. This method will probe the magnetic field in the warm and cold neutral components of the interstellar medium, providing a complement to the extensive SKA Faraday studies planning to probe the field in the ionized components.

This paper will illustrate two versions of an algorithm for finding prime number up to N, which give the first version complexity

(1)

where c1,c2 are constants, and N is the input dimension, and gives a better result for the second version. The method is based on an equation that expresses the behavior of not prime numbers. With this equation it is possible to construct a fast iteration to verify if the not prime number is generated by a prime and with which parameters. The second method differs because it does not pass other times over a number that has been previously evaluated as not prime. This is possible for a recurrence of not prime number that is (mod 3) = 0. The complexity in this case is better than the first. The comparison is made most with Mathematics than by computer calculation as the number N should be very big to appreciate the difference between the two versions. Anyway the second version results better. The algorithms have been

In this paper we will give an algorithm that in the worst case solve the question about the primality of a number in but that gives better result if the number is not prime (constant operation). Firstly, we will introduce an equation on which are based not prime numbers. With this equation it is possible to deduce the prime number that generates a not prime number and to establish an equation in which if exists a certain integer the number is not prime and therefore viceversa to deduce if it is prime.

This works aims to give an answer to the problem P = NP? The result is
positive with the criteria that solve the Traveling Salesman Problem in polynomial cost of the input size and a proof is given. This problem gets a solution because a polyhedron, with a cut
flower looking, is introduced instead of graph (e.g. tree).

Digital imaging techniques have enabled to gain insight into complex
structure-functional processes involved in the neo-cortex maturation and in
brain development, already recognized in anatomical and histological
preparations. Despite such a refined technical progress most diagnostic records
sound still elusive and unreliable because of use of conventional morphometric
approaches based on a unique scale of measure, inadequate for investigating
irregular cellular components and structures which shape nervous and brain
tissues. Instead, these could be efficiently analyzed by adopting principles
and methodologies derived from the Fractal Geometry. Through his masterpiece,The Fractal Geometry of Nature[1], Benoît
Mandelbrot has provided a novel epistemological framework for interpreting the
real life and the natural world as they are, preventing whatever approximation
or subjective sight. Founded upon a body of well-defined laws and coherent
principles, the Fractal Geometry is a powerful tool for recognizing and
quantitatively describing a good many kinds of complex shapes, living forms,
organized patterns, and morphologic features long range correlated with a broad
network of functional interactions and metabolic processes that contribute to
building up adaptive responses making life sustainable. Scale free dynamics
characterized biological systems which develop through the iteration of single
generators on different scales thus preserving proper self-similar traits. In
the last decades several studies have contributed to showing how relevant may
be the recognition of fractal properties for a better understanding of brain
and nervous tissues either in healthy conditions or in altered and pathological
states.

Abstract:
Immune evasion is a strategy used by pathogenic microbes to evade the host immune system in order to
ensure successful propagation. Immune evasion is particularly important for the blood stages of Plasmodium
falciparum, the causative agent of the deadly disease malaria tropica. Because Plasmodium blood stage
parasites require human erythrocytes for replication, their ability to evade attack by the human immune
system is essential for parasite survival. In order to escape immunity-induced killing, the intraerythrocytic
parasites have evolved a variety of evasion mechanisms, including expansion of plasmodial surface proteins,
organ-specific sequestration of the infected red blood cells and acquisition of immune-regulatory proteins by
the parasite. This review aims to highlight recent advances in the molecular understanding of the immune
evasion strategies by P. falciparum, including antigenic variation, surface protein polymorphisms and
invasion ligand diversification. The review will further discuss new findings on the regulatory mechanisms
applied by P. falciparum to avoid lysis by the human complement as well as killing by immune factors of the
mosquito vector.

Abstract:
We investigate some basic applications of Fractional
Calculus (FC) to Newtonian mechanics. After a brief review of FC, we consider a
possible generalization of Newton’s second law of motion and apply it to the
case of a body subject to a constant force. In our second application of FC to
Newtonian gravity, we consider a generalized fractional gravitational potential
and derive the related circular orbital velocities. This analysis might be used
as a tool to model galactic rotation curves, in view of the dark matter
problem. Both applications have a pedagogical value in connecting fractional
calculus to standard mechanics and can be used as a starting point for a more
advanced treatment of fractional mechanics.

Abstract:
Purification of water contaminated by toxic organic compounds at low and very low concentration is a quite interesting challenge from both the technical and the economical point of view. In fact, the direct destruction of organic compounds dissolved in very diluted aqueous solution is very costly and hardly achievable. To overcome this problems it was studied and developed a new water purification process which is made of three steps: a) removal of the diluted and toxic polluting compounds by adsorption on activated carbon beds operating at ambient P ant T; b) regeneration of the exhausted carbon bed with supercritical water in order to obtain a mixture of water and polluting compounds signifi-cantly more concentrated than the contaminated liquid water; c) destruction of the toxic compounds in a continuous Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor. Step a) was studied at laboratory scale in order to obtain all the required information for modeling the adsorption operation; step b) was modeled by using literature experimental data and, step c) was validated at pilot plant scale. In all the above mentioned steps, phenol was used as representative of polluting compounds.