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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 303742 matches for " Gaál T. "
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Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows
Gaál T.
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0304159g
Abstract: High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.
Optimal Endogenous Tariffs with Implicit Campaign Contributions  [PDF]
Gal Lagadec
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.44040

This article proposes a model of endogenous protection by integrating informed and non-informed voters in the population. The model also distinguishes between interest groups and pressure groups, by considering that the members of one interest group do not necessarily organize as a pressure group (lobby). The endogenous tariff stemming from the model is an increasing function of the relative influence of the lobby, and the aforementioned function itself increases in accordance with the part of non-informed voters. This framework avoids formalizing contributions. It also permits to show that the conditions of the lobbying’s efficiency depend on the nature of the free rider comportment of the interest group members.

Participatory Teaching and Happiness in Developed Nations  [PDF]
Gal Brulé
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
Abstract: Average happiness differs considerably across nations. Much of this difference is in societal development, but average happiness differs also among developed nations. Much of that latter difference seems to be due to cultural factors and education is a main carrier of these. In that context we explored the effect of teaching styles on happiness. In a first study on the general public in 37 developed nations we found that people feel happier in the nations where participatory teaching prevailed. Much of this difference can be explained by the effect of teaching style on psychological autonomy. Participatory teaching fosters autonomy and autonomy adds to happiness. In a second study among high school pupils we found no correlation between average happiness and dominant teaching style in the nation, which fits the explanation that the effect of participatory teaching is in personality formation, with the consequences for happiness of which manifest in adulthood.
The Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects  [PDF]
Gal Lecomte, Jacques Juhel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28129
Abstract: Neurofeedback or electroencephalographic operant conditioning (EEG-OC) is an EEG biofeedback technique used to train individuals to control or modify their cortical activity through learned self-regulation. Initially used for treating a variety of pathologies, neurofeedback has been employed more recently to improve the physical or cognitive performance of human beings. The purpose of this study is to assess the hypothesis of the effect of neurofeedback (the ‘awakened mind’ model) on the memory performance of subjects aged over 65. 30 participants were shared equally between 3 groups: an experimental group that underwent 4 neurofeedback training sessions; a non-neurofeedback group trained at relaxation; and a ‘waiting list’ control group. Results showed that the members of the Neurofeedback group learned to increase the spectral power of the alpha frequency range as well as the alpha/thêta ratio, and that compared with the members of the two other groups, neurofeedback training resulted in a more pronounced decrease, albeit without any relation to changes in EEG activity and the level of stress and anxiety of participants undergoing such training. Yet contrary to expectations, no improvement of memory performance (differed recall of words and learning of lists of words) was observed. These mixed results, which suggest a wide range of applications, underline the need for a more systematic assessment of the potential applications of NFB training in elderly humans in order to be better able to specify the effects of the retained protocol on cognitive performance.
Average Happiness and Dominant Family Type in Regions in Western Europe around 2000  [PDF]
Gal Brulé, Ruut Veenhoven
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.412031
Abstract: Research on the relation between family and happiness has focused on the micro level and considered the effects of an individual’s place in the family system, such as whether or not one is married and exchange of support with kin. Macro level differences in the family system as such have received little attention as yet. In this paper we consider regional differences in family types in Europe and explore the relationship with average happiness. Data on dominant family type in regions are taken from Todd (1990), who distinguishes five family types: 1) absolute nuclear; 2) egalitarian nuclear; 3) communitarian; 4) stem family; and 5) incomplete stem family. Data on average happiness in regions are taken from the Eurobarometer surveys. Average happiness appears to be highest in regions where family pattern of “absolute nuclear” prevails and lowest in the regions where “egalitarian nuclear” family dominates. Control for economic prosperity in regions does not change this picture. A possible interpretation of these findings is that freedom adds more to happiness than equality does. It is not true for types of freedom. If horizontal freedom (intragenerational freedom) seems to be important in terms of well-being, the results are much less convincing as far as vertical freedom (intergenerational freedom) is concerned. The findings might have some far reach contribution in the field of family policy.
Multidimensional Coherent Photocurrent Spectroscopy of a Semiconductor Nanostructure
Gal Nardin,Travis M. Autry,Kevin L. Silverman,Steven T. Cundiff
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.028617
Abstract: Multidimensional Coherent Optical Photocurrent Spectroscopy (MD-COPS) is implemented using unstabilized interferometers. Photocurrent from a semiconductor sample is generated using a sequence of four excitation pulses in a collinear geometry. Each pulse is tagged with a unique radio frequency through acousto-optical modulation ; the Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) signal is then selected in the frequency domain. The interference of an auxiliary continuous wave laser, which is sent through the same interferometers as the excitation pulses, is used to synthesize reference frequencies for lock-in detection of the photocurrent FWM signal. This scheme enables the partial compensation of mechanical fluctuations in the setup, achieving sufficient phase stability without the need for active stabilization. The method intrinsically provides both the real and imaginary parts of the FWM signal as a function of inter-pulse delays. This signal is subsequently Fourier transformed to create a multi-dimensional spectrum. Measurements made on the excitonic resonance in a double InGaAs quantum well embedded in a p-i-n diode demonstrate the technique.
Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons
Gaétan Chevalier,Stephen T. Sinatra,James L. Oschman,Karol Sokal,Pawel Sokal
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/291541
Abstract: Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.
Evaluation of a real-time virtual intervention to empower persons living with HIV to use therapy self-management: study protocol for an online randomized controlled trial
C?té José,Godin Gaston,Guéhéneuc Yann-Gal,Rouleau Geneviève
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-187
Abstract: Background Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I’immunodéficience Humaine–Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE ) intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV) with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) among PLHIV. Methods/design A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0), after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Discussion Carrying out this online RCT poses various challenges in terms of recruitment, ethics, and data collection, including participant follow-up over an extended period. Collaboration between researchers from clinical disciplines (nursing, medicine), and experts in behavioral sciences information technology and media will be crucial to the development of innovative solutions to supplying and delivering health services. Trial registration CE 11.184 / NCT 01510340
A Spatially Explicit Metapopulation Model and Cattle Trade Analysis Suggests Key Determinants for the Recurrent Circulation of Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Pilot Area of Madagascar Highlands
Ga?lle Nicolas,Véronique Chevalier,Luciano Micha?l Tantely,Didier Fontenille,Beno?t Durand
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003346
Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008–2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of vector proliferation, and cattle exchange practices could be a key element for understanding RVFV circulation in this area of Madagascar highlands.
A Bayesian Inference Framework to Reconstruct Transmission Trees Using Epidemiological and Genetic Data
Marco J. Morelli,Gal Thébaud,Jo?l Chad?uf,Donald P. King,Daniel T. Haydon ,Samuel Soubeyrand
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002768
Abstract: The accurate identification of the route of transmission taken by an infectious agent through a host population is critical to understanding its epidemiology and informing measures for its control. However, reconstruction of transmission routes during an epidemic is often an underdetermined problem: data about the location and timings of infections can be incomplete, inaccurate, and compatible with a large number of different transmission scenarios. For fast-evolving pathogens like RNA viruses, inference can be strengthened by using genetic data, nowadays easily and affordably generated. However, significant statistical challenges remain to be overcome in the full integration of these different data types if transmission trees are to be reliably estimated. We present here a framework leading to a bayesian inference scheme that combines genetic and epidemiological data, able to reconstruct most likely transmission patterns and infection dates. After testing our approach with simulated data, we apply the method to two UK epidemics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV): the 2007 outbreak, and a subset of the large 2001 epidemic. In the first case, we are able to confirm the role of a specific premise as the link between the two phases of the epidemics, while transmissions more densely clustered in space and time remain harder to resolve. When we consider data collected from the 2001 epidemic during a time of national emergency, our inference scheme robustly infers transmission chains, and uncovers the presence of undetected premises, thus providing a useful tool for epidemiological studies in real time. The generation of genetic data is becoming routine in epidemiological investigations, but the development of analytical tools maximizing the value of these data remains a priority. Our method, while applied here in the context of FMDV, is general and with slight modification can be used in any situation where both spatiotemporal and genetic data are available.
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