oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 72 matches for " GINGER; "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /72
Display every page Item
Set up to Fail: Inadequate Educational Support for Orphans in Central Kenya  [PDF]
Ginger A. Johnson
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2011.11001
Abstract: In response to Kenya's goal of free and universal primary education for every child by 2015, this paper describes a few of the obstacles that one of the most visible periphery populations in Kenya, orphaned children, face in attempting to reach this objective. The most frequently cited barriers of children and their caretakers to consistent school attendance included: inability to pay school fees, lack of a school uniform, difficulty in providing assis- tance to orphaned children, presence of disease/illness in the family and disruption of education due to political violence. Conducted in a Kikuyu community in the Kinangop District of Central Kenya following the 2007/2008 presidential election riots, this study utilized multiple regression, logistic regression and MANOVA statistical tests to determine if families caring for orphaned children of primary school age differed significantly from families with no orphans in the home. Discriminant function and Mahalanobis testing further revealed differ- ences in types of households, with the presence of orphans in the home (particularly AIDS orphans) significantly increasing the amount of school fees owed per family. Qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with families and open-ended interviews with their primary school aged children contextualized study results and inform policy recommendations.
Conducta alimentaria de Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 y Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera) frente a un gradiente de concentración de alimento
MARTINEZ,GINGER;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2000000100006
Abstract: because cladocera is the most abundant group of filter-feeders in the freshwater zooplankton and their populations are usually found under limited resources conditions, the individual response under a resources concentration gradient has important consequences on the population and community patterns. feeding behavior of moina micrura, ceriodaphnia dubia and daphnia ambigua (cladocera) on the microalgae chlorella sp. and oocystis sp. (chlorophyceae) was compared by using the following parameters: maximum ingestion rate (imax), incipient limiting concentration (ilc) and consumption efficiency (b), which were obtained through a model of functional response. results indicated that d. ambigua showed the highest imax and ilc on both resources, however, this specie presented the lowest b. whereas, d. ambigua did not show differences in b on chlorella sp. or oocystis sp., m. micrura showed a higher b on chlorella sp. and c. dubia on oocystis sp. these results reveal significant interspecific differences in the feeding response of cladocera, which showed a complex behavior exposed to variations in the availability of food resources
Conducta alimentaria de Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 y Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera) frente a un gradiente de concentración de alimento Feeding behaviour of Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 and Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera) under a food concentration gradient
GINGER MARTINEZ
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2000,
Abstract: Debido a que Cladocera es el grupo de microfiltradores más abundante del zooplancton límnico y cuyas poblaciones se encuentran usualmente limitadas por alimento, la respuesta de los individuos frente a un gradiente de concentración de recursos tendría significativas implicancias sobre los patrones poblacionales y comunitarios. Se comparó la conducta alimentaria de Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia y Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera) frente a las microalgas Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae) mediante los siguientes parámetros: Tasa de Ingesta Máxima (Imax), Concentración Limitante Incipiente (CLI) y Eficiencia de Consumo (b), los cuales fueron obtenidos a través de un modelo de respuesta funcional. Los resultados mostraron que D. ambigua presentó las mayores Imax y CLI sobre ambos recursos, sin embargo, esta especie presentó la menor b. Mientras que D. ambigua no presentó diferencias en b sobre Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp., M. micrura presentó una mayor b sobre Chlorella sp. y C. dubia sobre Oocystis sp. Estos resultados revelan significativas diferencias interespecíficas en la respuesta alimentaria de Cladocera, grupo que presentó un complejo comportamiento frente a variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos alimentarios Because Cladocera is the most abundant group of filter-feeders in the freshwater zooplankton and their populations are usually found under limited resources conditions, the individual response under a resources concentration gradient has important consequences on the population and community patterns. Feeding behavior of Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera) on the microalgae Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae) was compared by using the following parameters: Maximum Ingestion Rate (Imax), Incipient Limiting Concentration (ILC) and Consumption Efficiency (b), which were obtained through a model of functional response. Results indicated that D. ambigua showed the highest Imax and ILC on both resources, however, this specie presented the lowest b. Whereas, D. ambigua did not show differences in b on Chlorella sp. or Oocystis sp., M. micrura showed a higher b on Chlorella sp. and C. dubia on Oocystis sp. These results reveal significant interspecific differences in the feeding response of Cladocera, which showed a complex behavior exposed to variations in the availability of food resources
A rapid genome-wide response to Drosophila melanogaster social interactions
Ginger E Carney
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-288
Abstract: I used Affymetrix Drosophila Genome arrays to identify genes whose expression profiles would change rapidly due to the social interactions occurring during Drosophila melanogaster courtship. I identified 43 loci with significant expression profile changes during a 5-min exposure period. These results indicate that social interactions can lead to extremely rapid changes in mRNA abundance.The known functions of the up-regulated genes identified in this study include nervous system signaling and spermatogenesis, while the majority of down-regulated loci are implicated in immune signaling. Expression of two of the up-regulated genes, Odorant-binding protein 99b (Obp99b) and female-specific independent of transformer (fit), is controlled by the Drosophila sex-determination gene hierarchy, which regulates male and female mating behaviors and somatic differentiation. Therefore, additional identified loci may represent other long-elusive targets of Drosophila sex-determination genes.Social interactions are known to alter individual physiology, but the extent to which transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms function in inducing these changes is unclear. Immediate responses are likely modulated by environmentally induced changes in synaptic signaling, which may result in alterations in gene expression with long-term consequences. Identifying the genetic basis for physiologic responses is of significant interest because it will clarify how regulated gene expression and the resulting intracellular signaling events modulate complex behaviors.Genes that control complex traits such as behaviors are difficult to identify by standard mutant analysis for two major reasons: (1) behaviors may be influenced by a large number of genes which each have a small effect, and (2) the genes involved usually have pleiotropic functions dependent upon the cellular or developmental context. Despite these limitations, Drosophila geneticists have successfully used mutant analysis to identi
Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos
MARTINEZ,GINGER; MONTECINO,VIVIAN;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2000000400020
Abstract: although numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans moina micrura (moinidae) and ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnidae), specialists on the resources chlorella sp. and oocystis sp. (chlorococcales) respectively, and for the generalist species daphnia ambigua (daphnidae), during 35 - 45 days. while, the specialists m. micrura and c. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their presence lead to a significant decrease in the density of the generalist d. ambigua and in some cases even led to extinction. although the generalist qualitatively affected the dynamics of each specialist, it did not affect their density, thus resulting in an asymmetrical interaction among each specialist with the generalist species. these results demonstrate that the feeding behavior and resource use overlap should be determinant conditions in the composition of cladoceran assemblages
Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos Competition in Cladocera: implications of the trophic resources use overlap
GINGER MARTINEZ,VIVIAN MONTECINO
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2000,
Abstract: A pesar que numerosa evidencia demuestra el uso de diferentes estrategias de alimentación entre cladóceros, la clásica descripción de una conducta alimentaria pasiva ha conducido a una subestimación de la sobreposición de nicho trófico sobre sus patrones de coexistencia. En condiciones de microcosmos, se mantuvieron experimentos pareados de dinámica poblacional de los cladóceros Moina micrura (Moinidae) y Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae), especializados en los recursos Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales) respectivamente y del generalista Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae), durante 35 - 45 días. Mientras que los especialistas M. micrura y C. dubia no dieron evidencias de competencia, la presencia de cada uno produjo un significativo decrecimiento de la densidad del generalista D. ambigua, ocasionando en algunos casos su extinción. A pesar que las dinámicas poblacionales de cada especialista fueron afectadas cualitativamente por la presencia del generalista, no hubo efecto de esta especie sobre las densidades, resultando una interacción asimétrica entre cada especialista con el generalista. Estos resultados demuestran que la conducta alimentaria y la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos serían condiciones determinantes en la composición de ensambles de cladóceros Although numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. Under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans Moina micrura (Moinidae) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae), specialists on the resources Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales) respectively, and for the generalist species Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae), during 35 - 45 days. While, the specialists M. micrura and C. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their presence lead to a significant decrease in the density of the generalist D. ambigua and in some cases even led to extinction. Although the generalist qualitatively affected the dynamics of each specialist, it did not affect their density, thus resulting in an asymmetrical interaction among each specialist with the generalist species. These results demonstrate that the feeding behavior and resource use overlap should be determinant conditions in the composition of cladoceran assemblages
La Tentation et les savoirs
Gisèle Séginger
Flaubert : Revue Critique et Génétique , 2009,
Abstract: Malgré son inactualité apparente, La Tentation de Saint Antoine se rattache à une série de savoirs, de recherches historiques, d’interrogations qui caractérisent son époque et définissent une configuration épistémologique. Les savoirs sont impliqués à deux niveaux : dans l’organisation de la poétique de l’ uvre, dans les représentations de l’ uvre. Flaubert utilise des savoirs historiques, anthropologiques et psychiatriques qui légitiment l’organisation du texte et les déconstruit en même temps. Il invente une nouvelle forme de grotesque – le grotesque des idées – et met en abyme un questionnement sur les savoirs qui évolue de la première Tentation à celle de 1874. Despite its apparent irrelevancy to Flaubert's time, La Tentation de Saint Antoine is linked to a net of knowledge, historical research, questions that characterize a period and define an epistemological configuration. These types of knowledge are at play on two levels: in the organization of the poetics of the work and in its representations. Flaubert uses historical, anthropological and psychiatric knowledge which legitimates the organization of the text while at the same time he deconstructs this body of knowledge. Flaubert invents a new form of grotesque – the grotesque of ideas – and, in a mise-en-abyme from the first Tentation to the 1874 version, he questions these fields of knowledge.
EurekAlert! survey confirms challenges for science communicators in the post-print era
Ginger Pinholster,Catherine O’Malley
JCOM : Journal of Science Communication , 2006,
Abstract: An informal, online survey of 1,059 reporters and public information officers, conducted this year by EurekAlert! (www.eurekalert.org), the science-news Web service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), seems to confirm key challenges associated with communicating science in a post-print, increasingly multi-media-focused era. As many newspapers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and other regions continue to down-size, reporters still covering science and technology say they increasingly need good-quality images, as well as rapid access to researchers capable of making science more understandable to lay audiences. The EurekAlert! findings, released 16 August during the Euroscience Open Forum 2006 meeting in Munich, Germany, suggest that beyond the predictable reporter concerns of learning about breaking research news before the competition or the public, top concerns for today’s reporters are “finding researchers who can explain science,” and “obtaining photographs or other multimedia to support the story.” Judging the trustworthiness or integrity of scientific findings while avoiding “hype” also emerged as key concerns for 614 reporters who participated in the EurekAlert! survey, along with 445 public information officers.
Pregnancy-induced changes in cell-fate in the mammary gland
Melanie R Ginger, Jeffrey M Rosen
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr603
Abstract: On the basis of epidemiologic studies and pathology, breast cancer appears to be an extremely complex, multi-factorial disease. In spite of our growing understanding of the molecular aberrations that lead to cancer, and the role of endocrine signaling pathways in the progression of the disease, there are few common links pointing to an individual's susceptibility to breast cancer. However, one consistent finding is the correlation between the timing of normal endocrine-related developmental events and breast cancer risk [1]. In particular, there is strong epidemiologic evidence that women who experience a full-term pregnancy early in their lives have a significantly reduced risk for developing breast cancer [2-5]. This has been corroborated by numerous experimental studies in rodents that resoundingly demonstrated the protective effect of an early full-term pregnancy against mammary tumors (reviewed in [6]). In addition, hormonal mimicry, by treatment with estrogen and progesterone (E+P) or human chorionic gonadotropin for a period of at least 21 days, can be equally effective for inducing a refractory state that is similar to that afforded by an early full-term pregnancy [6-13].The observation that the protective effect of an early full-term pregnancy can be accurately reproduced in rodents has lead to the development of defined animal models for studying this parity-related phenomenon. For many years, tumor-susceptible rat models were the mainstay of this experimental effort; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that several strains of mice may also be appropriate models for these studies. Despite the wealth of literature supporting the role of endocrine-mediated processes in parity-related refractoriness, little is known of the molecular mechanisms that govern pregnancy-specific developmental changes in the mammary gland. In this commentary, we consider the contributions made by several recent publications to the advancement of our understandin
Loss of p24 function in Drosophila melanogaster causes a stress response and increased levels of NF-κB-regulated gene products
Kara A Boltz, Ginger E Carney
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-212
Abstract: We performed genome-wide profiling experiments on tissues from Drosophila females with a mutation in the p24 gene logjam (loj) and identified changes in message levels for 641 genes. We found that loj mutants have expression profiles consistent with activation of stress responses. Of particular note is our observation that approximately 20% of the loci up regulated in loj mutants are Drosophila immune-regulated genes (DIRGs), many of which are transcriptional targets of NF-κB or JNK signaling pathways.The loj mutant expression profiling data support the hypothesis that loss of p24 function causes a stress response. Genes involved in ameliorating stress, such as those encoding products involved in proteolysis, metabolism and protein folding, are differentially expressed in loj mutants compared to controls. Nearly 20% of the genes with increased message levels in the loj mutant are transcriptional targets of Drosophila NF-κB proteins. Activation of NF-κB transcription factors is the hallmark of an ER stress response called the ER overload response. Therefore, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Drosophila p24 mutations induce stress, possibly via activation of ER stress response pathways. Because of the molecular and genetic tools available for Drosophila, the fly will be a useful system for investigating the tissue-specific functions of p24 proteins and for determining the how disrupting these molecules causes stress responses in vivo.Proper functioning of the ER is critical for cell survival and function. Perturbations in protein folding in the ER or in trafficking of secretory proteins are associated with a large number of human maladies, including diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, and can lead to chronic inflammation and cancer [Reviewed in [1-5]]. The ER is the first cellular compartment in which secretory and membrane proteins undergo post-translational modification as they progress through the cellular membrane systems to their final functio
Page 1 /72
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.