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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 601757 matches for " G.S. de Hoog "
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Parascedosporium and its relatives: phylogeny and ecological trends
M. Lackner,G.S. de Hoog
IMA Fungus , 2011,
Abstract: The genus Seedosporiurn and its relatives comprising microascalean anamorphs with slimy conidia were studied. Graphiurn and Paraseedosporiurn also belong to this complex, while teleomorphs are found in Pseudalleseheria, Petriella, Petriellopsis, and Lophotriehus. Species complexes were clearly resolved by rDNA ITS sequencing. Significantly different ecological trends were observed between resolved species aggregates. The Pseudalleseheria and Seedosporiurn pro/ifieans clades were the only lineages with a marked opportunistic potential to mammals, while Petriella species were associated primarily with soil enriched by, e.g.dung. A consistent association with bark beetles was observed in the Graphiurn clade. The ex-type strain of Rhinoe/adiurn /esnei, CBS 108.10 was incorrectly implicated by Vuillemin (1910) in a case of human mycetoma; its sequence was identical to that of the ex-type strain of Paraseedosporiurn teetonae, CBS 127.84.
Drought meets acid: three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi
L. Selbmann,G.S. de Hoog,Zucconi,D. Isola
Studies in Mycology , 2008,
Abstract: Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. Taxonomic novelties: Recurvomyces Selbmann & de Hoog, gen. nov.; Recurvomyces mirabilis Selbmann & de Hoog, sp. nov.; Elasticomyces Zucconi & Selbmann, gen. nov.; Elasticomyces elasticus Zucconi & Selbmann, sp. nov.; Acidomyces Selbmann, de Hoog & De Leo, gen. nov.; Acidomyces acidophilus (Sigler & J.W. Carmich.) Selbmann, de Hoog & De Leo, comb. nov.
The influence of ortho- and para-diphenoloxidase substrates on pigment formation in black yeast-like fungi
N.A. Yurlova,G.S. de Hoog,L.G. Fedorova
Studies in Mycology , 2008,
Abstract: Dothideaceous black yeast-like fungi (BYF) are known to synthesise DHN-melanin that is inhibited by the systemic fungicide tricyclazole. The final step of the DHN melanin pathway is the conjoining of 1,8-DHN molecules to form the melanin polymer. There are several candidate enzymes for this step, including phenoloxidases such as tyrosinase and laccases, peroxidases, and perhaps also catalases. We analysed the type polyphenoloxidases that are involved in biosynthesis of BYF melanins. For that purpose we used substrates of o-diphenoloxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 [EC] .): 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acid, L-β-phenyllactic acid, tyrosine, pyrocatechol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and homogentisic acid, as well as substrates of p-diphenoloxidases (EC 1.10.3.2 [EC] .): syringaldazine, resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, phloroglucinol, guaiacol and pyrogallic acid. Fourteen strains of black yeasts originating from different natural biotopes were investigated. The tested strains could be divided into four groups based on their ability to produce dark pigments when cultivated on aromatic substrates of o- and on p-diphenoloxidases. It was established that syringaldazine, pyrogallic acid and 4-hydrophenyl-pyruvic acid, β-phenyllactic acid optimally promote melanin biosynthesis. Average intensity of pigmentation of all strains studied was minimal when guaiacol was used as a substrate. The present investigation indicates that the melanisation process may involve more enzymes and more substrates than those commonly recognised. Black yeasts are likely to contain a multipotent polyphenoloxidase.
Phylogeny and ecology of the ubiquitous saprobe Cladosporium sphaerospermum, with descriptions of seven new species from hypersaline environments
P. Zalar,G.S. de Hoog,H.-J. Schroers,P.W. Crous
Studies in Mycology , 2007,
Abstract: Saprobic Cladosporium isolates morphologically similar to C. sphaerospermum are phylogenetically analysed on the basis of DNA sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA as well as -tubulin and actin gene introns and exons. Most of the C. sphaerospermum-like species show halotolerance as a recurrent feature. Cladosporium sphaerospermum, which is characterised by almost globose conidia, is redefined on the basis of its ex-neotype culture. Cladosporium dominicanum, C. psychrotolerans, C. velox, C. spinulosum and C. halotolerans, all with globoid conidia, are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and cryptic morphological and physiological characters. Cladosporium halotolerans was isolated from hypersaline water and bathrooms and detected once on dolphin skin. Cladosporium dominicanum and C. velox were isolated from plant material and hypersaline water. Cladosporium psychrotolerans, which grows well at 4 °C but not at 30 °C, and C. spinulosum, having conspicuously ornamented conidia with long digitate projections, are currently only known from hypersaline water. We also newly describe C. salinae from hypersaline water and C. fusiforme from hypersaline water and animal feed. Both species have ovoid to ellipsoid conidia and are therefore reminiscent of C. herbarum. Cladosporium langeronii (= Hormodendrum langeronii) previously described as a pathogen on human skin, is halotolerant but has not yet been recorded from hypersaline environments.
Acremonium phylogenetic overview and revision of Gliomastix, Sarocladium, and Trichothecium
R.C. Summerbell,C. Gueidan,H-J. Schroers,G.S. de Hoog
Studies in Mycology , 2011,
Abstract: Over 200 new sequences are generated for members of the genus Acremonium and related taxa including ribosomal small subunit sequences (SSU) for phylogenetic analysis and large subunit (LSU) sequences for phylogeny and DNA-based identification. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that within the Hypocreales, there are two major clusters containing multiple Acremonium species. One clade contains Acremonium sclerotigenum, the genus Emericellopsis, and the genus Geosmithia as prominent elements. The second clade contains the genera Gliomastix sensu stricto and Bionectria. In addition, there are numerous smaller clades plus two multi-species clades, one containing Acremonium strictum and the type species of the genus Sarocladium, and, as seen in the combined SSU/LSU analysis, one associated subclade containing Acremonium breve and related species plus Acremonium curvulum and related species. This sequence information allows the revision of three genera. Gliomastix is revived for five species, G. murorum, G. polychroma, G. tumulicola, G. roseogrisea, and G. masseei. Sarocladium is extended to include all members of the phylogenetically distinct A. strictum clade including the medically important A. kiliense and the protective maize endophyte A. zeae. Also included in Sarocladium are members of the phylogenetically delimited Acremonium bacillisporum clade, closely linked to the A. strictum clade. The genus Trichothecium is revised following the principles of unitary nomenclature based on the oldest valid anamorph or teleomorph name, and new combinations are made in Trichothecium for the tightly interrelated Acremonium crotocinigenum, Spicellum roseum, and teleomorph Leucosphaerina indica. Outside the Hypocreales, numerous Acremonium-like species fall into the Plectosphaerellaceae, and A. atrogriseum falls into the Cephalothecaceae
Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico
A. Bonifaz,H. Badali,G.S. de Hoog,M. Cruz
Studies in Mycology , 2008,
Abstract: Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997–2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. In twelve cases, adults were involved, in 10, children. In nineteen cases the disorder was located on palms of hands and in three on soles of feet. In all cases, the obtained isolates were morphologically identified as Hortaea werneckii and the identification of ten isolates was retrospectively confirmed with the help of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. The patients received topical treatment with Whitfield ointment, ketoconazole, bifonazole, or terbinafine. Treatment with keratolytic agents and topical antifungals was effective.
Opportunistic, human-pathogenic species in the Herpotrichiellaceae are phenotypically similar to saprobic or phytopathogenic species in the Venturiaceae
P.W. Crous,K. Schubert,U. Braun,G.S. de Hoog
Studies in Mycology , 2007,
Abstract: Although morphologically similar, species of Cladophialophora (Herpotrichiellaceae) were shown to be phylogenetically distinct from Pseudocladosporium (Venturiaceae), which was revealed to be synonymous with the older genus, Fusicladium. Other than being associated with human disorders, species of Cladophialophora were found to also be phytopathogenic, or to occur as saprobes on organic material, or in water, fruit juices, or sports drinks, along with species of Exophiala. Caproventuria and Metacoleroa were confirmed to be synonyms of Venturia, which has Fusicladium (= Pseudocladosporium) anamorphs. Apiosporina, based on A. collinsii, clustered basal to the Venturia clade, and appears to represent a further synonym. Several species with a pseudocladosporium-like morphology in vitro represent a sister clade to the Venturia clade, and are unrelated to Polyscytalum. These taxa are newly described in Fusicladium, which is morphologically close to Anungitea, a heterogeneous genus with unknown phylogenetic affinity. In contrast to the Herpotrichiellaceae, which were shown to produce numerous synanamorphs in culture, species of the Venturiaceae were morphologically and phylogenetically more uniform. Several new species and new combinations were introduced in Cladophialophora, Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), Exophiala, Fusicladium, Venturia (Venturiaceae), and Cylindrosympodium (incertae sedis).
Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties
P. Zalar,C. Gostin?ar,G.S. de Hoog,V. Ur?i?
Studies in Mycology , 2008,
Abstract: Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding β-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. Taxonomic novelties: Aureobasidium pullulans var. subglaciale Zalar, de Hoog & Gunde-Cimerman, var. nov.; Aureobasidium pullulans var. namibiae Zalar, de Hoog & Gunde-Cimerman, var. nov.
Molecular analysis and pathogenicity of the Cladophialophora carrionii complex, with the description of a novel species
G.S. de Hoog,A.S. Nishikaku,G. Fernandez-Zeppenfeldt,C. Padín-González
Studies in Mycology , 2007,
Abstract: Cladophialophora carrionii is one of the four major etiologic agents of human chromoblastomycosis in semi-arid climates. This species was studied using sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, the partial -tubulin gene and an intron in the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene, in addition to morphology. With all genes a clear bipartition was observed, which corresponded with minute differences in conidiophore morphology. A new species, C. yegresii, was introduced, which appeared to be, in contrast to C. carrionii, associated with living cactus plants. All strains from humans, and a few isolates from dead cactus debris, belonged to C. carrionii, for which a lectotype was designated. Artificial inoculation of cactus plants grown from seeds in the greenhouse showed that both fungi are able to persist in cactus tissue. When reaching the spines they produce cells that morphologically resemble the muriform cells known as the "invasive form" in chromoblastomycosis. The tested clinical strain of C. carrionii proved to be more virulent in cactus than the environmental strain of C. yegresii that originated from the same species of cactus, Stenocereus griseus. The muriform cell expressed in cactus spines can be regarded as the extremotolerant survival phase, and is likely to play an essential role in the natural life cycle of these organisms.
Selective factors involved in oil flotation isolation of black yeasts from the environment
M.M. Satow,D. Attili-Angelis,G.S. de Hoog,D.F. Angelis
Studies in Mycology , 2008,
Abstract: The oil flotation isolation technique has been successfully applied to recover chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives from the environment. The selective mechanisms playing a role in isolation are unknown. The fungi concerned are supposed to occupy specialized microniches in nature, taking advantage of (1) oligotrophism. Mineral oil as a main selective agent may be based on (2) hydrophobicity or on (3) assimilation. All three hypotheses are tested in this paper. Results show that cell wall hydrophobicity is unlikely to be a selective factor. Incubation under poor nutrient conditions provides competitive advantage for black yeasts, especially for Exophiala strains, which are subsequently enriched by mineral oil which enhances growth in this group of fungi. Incubation under mineral media and mineral oil can be used as selective factor.
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