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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463653 matches for " G.S. Bawa "
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Evaluation of Methiorep as a Substitute for Methionine in Broiler Diets
Itoe Salome,I.I. Dafwang,G.S. Bawa
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: A total of 225 day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the use of Methiorep, a herbal Methionine product, as a substitute for synthetic Methionine in broiler diets. The experiment lasted from 0-4 weeks of age. The birds were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments in 3 replicates of 15 birds each, giving a total of 45 birds per treatment. The 5 dietary treatments comprised diet 1 which was devoid of supplementary Methionine and Methiorep, diet 2 had 0.25% Methionine, while diets 3-5 had graded levels of 0.25, 0.5 and 1% Methiorep respectively. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The results showed that birds fed the Methionine supplemented diet performed significantly (p<0.05) better than other treatments in body weights, weight gains, feed intake, feed to gain and feed cost per kg gain. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on mortality rate. An analysis of the effect of graded levels of Methiorep on growth performance showed that Methiorep significantly improved growth performance up to 1% inclusion level but growth performance even at that level was inferior to that obtained on the 0.25% Methionine supplemented diet. It is concluded from this experiment that Methiorep is not an effective substitute for Methionine under the conditions of this study.
Effects of Various Durations of Water Deprivation on Performance of Weaner Rabbits in a Sub-Humid Environment
G.S. Bawa,S.B. Afolayan,D.B. Olumeyan,R. Ashiru
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of various duration of water deprivation on performance of weaner rabbits in a sub-humid environment. Forty eight (48) nine-week old weaner rabbits of mixed breed and sex with an average initial weight of 622 0.12g were used for the study which lasted 56 days There were four watering treatments such that water supply was restricted for 0, 6, 12 or 18 hours corresponding to 24, 18, 12 or 6 hours of access to water per day respectively. The rabbits were randomly assigned based on initial live weight and sex to the four watering treatments in a completely randomized design. Free water intake decreased linearly and significantly (P< 0.05) as the duration of water deprivation increased. There were no significant treatment effects (P>0.05) on daily feed intake. There were significant (P< 0.05) decreases in live weight gains, feed efficiency and water to feed ratio with increase in duration of water deprivation respectively. Mortality rate of about 16 and 33% were recorded among rabbits groups deprived of water for 12 and 18 hours per day respectively. Results of the study showed that for optimum growth performance, weaning rabbits should have access to free drinking water for a minimum period of 12 hours in a day.
Effect of Different Methods of Processing Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seeds on Performance of Young Rabbits
G.S. Bawa,M. Orunmuyi,A.S. Agbaji,Z. Ladan
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: A feeding trial using sixty (60) weaner rabbits with an average initial live weight of 560 0.80g was conducted to determine the effects of different methods of processing neem seeds on their performance and carcass characteristics. The rabbits were assigned to five dietary treatments based on their initial live weight and sex. There were twelve individually caged rabbits per treatment. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (18% CP). Diet 1 (control) was a Maize-Groundnut cake based diet without neem seed. Diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 had raw milled neem seed (RMNS), hydraulic press neem seed cake (HNSC), Solvent Extracted neem seed cake (SNSC) and Expeller neem seed cake (ENSC) included at 20% level, respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Weekly feed intake and body weight changes were determined and feed efficiency calculated. At the end of the 63-day feeding trial, four rabbits per treatment were selected based on the group average weight and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Blood samples were also obtained from the animals to evaluate Packcell volume (PCV), Haemoglobim (Hb) and Total protein (TP). The results showed that rabbits fed the processed neem seed cake diets had growth performance that were statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Animals on processed neem seed cake diets had significantly (P< 0.05) improved performance over and above those fed the raw neem seed diets. Animals on raw neem seed cake diet had consistently low value for PVC, Hb and TP. The use of solvent extracted neem seed cake in rabbit diet was favoured in this study.
Replacement Value of Normal Maize with Quality Protein Maize (Obatampa) in Broiler Diets
P.A. Onimisi,J.J. Omage,I.I. Dafwang,G.S. Bawa
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Three hundred and sixty days old Ross Broiler Chicks were used in a completely randomized design feeding trial to evaluate the benefits of replacing Normal Maize (NM) with Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Obatampa variety) in Broiler diets. There were 6 treatments of 3 replicates each and each replicate had 20 chicks. Six diets were formulated in which the NM in diet was replaced by QPM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% representing T1, T2, T3, T4 AND T5, respectively while T6 was normal maize base diet balanced for lysine. The appropriate diets were fed to the birds for 4 weeks in the starter phase and 4 weeks in the finisher phase. At the starter phase, there was gradual numerical increase in weight gain as QPM increased in the diet. T5 was significantly better than T1-T4 but T6 was the overall best performance. Feed consumption was similar for T1-T5 but significantly higher for T6. Feed/gain ratio improved as QPM increased in the diet (p<0.05). Dressing % and weights of organs expressed as % of live weight and body parts expressed as % of dressed weight were not different statistically (p>0.05).
Evaluation of Enzyme (Maxigrain ) Supplementation of Graded Levels of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) on the Performance of Broiler Chickens
P.M. Esuga,A.A. Sekoni,J.J. Omage,G.S. Bawa
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) in diets supplemented with or without enzyme (Maxigarin ) as replacement for Maize in broiler diets. Four hundred and five day old Arbor acres broiler chickens were randomly allotted to nine isonitrogeneous diet where PKM was included in the diet at 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels. Four of the diets contain PKM without Maxigrain while the other four contained PKM with Maxigrain supplementation. The Maxigrain was added to the already formulated diet (supplementation) at 0.01% to four of the nine diets. At the starter phase the final body weight, weight gain and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) higher in 10% and 20% PKM diets Maxigrain supplementation compared to other treatments. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in the control, 10% and 20% PKM diets with Maxigrain . The feed : gain ratio was significantly (P<0.001) lower in the 10% PKM diet with Maxigrain compared to all other treatments. All levels of PKM diets with Maxigrain were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the corresponding levels without Maxigrain . The feed cost/kg weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) lower in all PKM diets with and without Maxigrain compared to the control. At the finisher phase, the final weight, weight gain and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) higher in the 10% and 20% PKM diets with Maxigrain compared to all other treatments. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in all PKM diets with and without Maxigrain compared with the control. Feed : gain ratio and feed cost/kg weight gain (N) were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the control and all PKM diets with Maxigrain supplementation compared to all PKM diets without Maxigrain . The results indicate that Maxigrain supplementation of PKM diets improved the utilization of PKM. Diets with 10 and 20% inclusion of PKM and Maxigrain were better than the control maize based diets. The dressed weight, neck, liver, lungs, kidney, abdominal fat, pancrease, spleen and length of intestines were significantly (P<0.001) different across treatments. Similarly, the percentage weight of the breast, thigh, heart and the intestines were significantly (P<0.001) different across treatments with no particular trend established. The drumstick, wings, head and gizzard were significantly (P<0.05) different across treatments. No significant difference in the dressing percentage and the back across the treatments.
Evaluation of Enzyme (Maxigrain ) Treatment of Graded Levels of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) on Nutrient Retention
A.A. Sekoni,J.J. Omage,G.S. Bawa,P.M. Esuga
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: A nutrient retention trial was conducted over a twenty four day period. Eighty one day old chicks of Arbor acres strain were randomly allotted to nine isonitrogeneous dietary treatments where PKM was included in the diet at 0,10,20,30 and 40% levels and PKM treated with Maxigrain at 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels with three replicates and three birds each in metallic cages. Results show that there was significant (P<0.001) difference in protein, fat, NFE and metabolizable energy retention which were higher in the control and Maxigrain treated diets compared with the corresponding diets without Maxigrain . The crude fibre retention was significant (P<0.05) lower in the control compared treatments. The crude fibre retention values at 20 and 30% PKM diets with Maxigrain were significantly (P<0.05) lower than values for 20 and 30% PKM diets without Maxigrain . The results indicates that enzyme treatment of PKM increased the retention of vital nutrients and metabolizable energy.
Effects of Graded Levels of Palm-Kernel Cake on Performance of Grower Rabbits
M. Orunmuyi,G.S. Bawa,F.D. Adeyinka,O.M. Daudu
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: A total of forty (40) growing rabbits with an average initial weight of 921.5g were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% palm kernel cake as replacement for soyabean cake respectively. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (20% CP). The final live weights of the rabbits were higher in the control diet compared to those on palm kernel cake diets. With the exception of the rabbits placed on 40% level of palm kernel cake daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency values compared favourably with those on control diet. Carcass weight and weight of primal cuts expressed as percentage of carcass weight did not show any significant difference between the treatment means. Animals on 40% palm kernel cake diets had the highest (P< 0.05) cost per kg gain compared to those on other dietary treatments. It was concluded that palm kernel cake can be used up to 30% level in a maize – soyabean meal based diet for grower rabbits without adverse effect on the performance of the animals.
Evaluation of the Nutritive Value of Quality Protein Maize on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Weaner Rabbits
J.J. Omage,O.C.P. Agubosi,G.S. Bawa,P.A. Onimisi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Quality protein maize (QPM) was used to substitute normal maize variety in intensive rabbit study in attempt to reduce the cost of production. Thirty-six weaner rabbits with age ranging between 6-8 weeks and weighing between 225-300g were assigned to six treatment groups in a completely randomized design; six rabbits per treatment were individually caged and fed. The ration involved a percent replacement of normal maize with Quality protein maize at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 % levels of inclusion across the treatments. The control diet involves a 0% level of QPM supplemented with synthetic lysine. Water and feed was provided ad-libitum throughout the study period of 56 days. Feed intake, water consumption, weight gain and mortality were recorded. Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, water consumption, mortality rate, feed cost/kg weight gain. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.001) in feed cost/kg feed across the treatments. Carcass characteristics showed significant difference (P < 0.05) with no established trends in live weight, length of small and large intestines, liver, legs and tail. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in carcass weight, dressing percentage, heart, shoulder, loin, thigh, lungs, kidneys, spleen and head. The results indicated that feeding QPM to rabbits without lysine supplementation could sustain rabbits without affecting their performance, health and reduced cost of production.
Issues related to adapting assessment practices
G.S. Kotze
South African Journal of Education , 2002,
Abstract: The purpose in this study was to investigate assessment issues in an outcomes-based approach. A number of issues such as various claims, inferences and degrees of adequacy were investigated in a South African context. The results of this theoretical investigation are presented in the form of frameworks for the implementation of an array of assessment practices. (South African Journal of Education: 2002 22(1): 76-80)
Host use does not clarify the evolutionary history of African ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea)
G.S. Cumming
African Zoology , 2011,
Abstract: Where host–parasite associations are rigid and unique, the host preference(s) of parasites and the evolutionary relationships between their hosts may offer insights into the parasites’ evolutionary history. Where such associations are less rigid, however, the assumption that current host preferences are useful in formulating theories about parasite evolution is more questionable. I examine the validity of this assumption for a subset of African ticks and their hosts using the computer program Treemap to compare published phylogenies for each group. There is a marked lack of congruence between tick and host phylogenies and they offer no support for the hypothesis that cospeciation has been a dominant pattern in tick evolution. While this result does not prove that cospeciation between these taxa has not occurred, it suggests that the current host preferences of ticks are a poor guide to their evolutionary history and should not be used as key components of theories of tick evolution.
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