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In vitro antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Ficus religiosa (Linn.)
G.Ramakrishnaiah *1, T.Hariprasad2
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa) and one fungi (Aspergillus niger). The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm) followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm). Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.
Influence of VAM Fungi, Azotobacter sp. and PSB on Soil Phosphatase Activity and Nutrients (N, P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) Status in the Rhizosphere of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Plants  [PDF]
G. Ramakrishnaiah, T. Vijaya
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47176
Abstract:

The pot culture experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of different combinations of microbial inoculants (VAM + AZO + PSB) on soil phosphatase activity andnutrients (N, P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cu & Mn) of Steviarebaudia plant rhizosphere on 20th, 40th and 60th day. The study revealed that the combined application of microbial inoculants onsoil Alkaline and Acid phosphatase activity has been found maximum at 60th day in triple inoculated plants than dual inoculated and control. The results also showed that the soil macronutrients (N, P & K) and micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu & Mn) have been found to be maximum at 40th day and 60th day respectively in triple inoculated plants than dual inoculated and control.

Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India
C. Sadashivaiah,C. R. Ramakrishnaiah,G. Ranganna
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph5030158
Abstract: Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13o 06'30" to 13o 31' 00" North latitude and 76o 59' 00" to 77o 19' 00" East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.
Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India
C. Sadashivaiah,C. R. Ramakrishnaiah,G. Ranganna
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13 o 06'30" to 13 o 31' 00" North latitude and 76 o 59' 00" to 77 o 19' 00" East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.
Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India
C. R. Ramakrishnaiah,C. Sadashivaiah,G. Ranganna
Journal of Chemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/757424
Abstract:
Urban Water Management: Best Practice Cases  [PDF]
C. R. Ramakrishnaiah
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.22009
Abstract:

Current water resources management practices in most developing countries result in unnecessarily high economic and environmental costs. The magnitude and consequences of such costs have spurred the emergence of a global consensus on principles for improving water resource management. India will face an acute scarcity of water by 2025, more than most nations in the developing world. There is compelling evidence that improved water resources policies can have major impacts. In a number of cases in developed and developing countries pricing and tariff combined with regulations have produced savings of 20% to 30% and more. Improving water management will require that developing countries address the major constraints that currently undermine the allocation and efficient use of their water resources. Experiences in both developing and developed countries, as presented in this article, showed that improved policies for conservation and reallocation can have major benefits. The concerned authorities should look for various alternatives such as rainwater harvesting, recycling of wastewater, reducing un-accounted water and other options. Rainwater harvesting should be made compulsory; wastewater reuse has to be made with dual water supply system for new layouts. As the suburbs in the city are increasing day by day, rainwater harvesting would be able to serve the city for much longer time.

IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND BARK EXTRACTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA (Linn.)
Gampa Ramakrishnaiah,T. Hariprasad
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: In the present study we investigated antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extractions of bark and leaves of Ficus religiosa plant against three bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aurignosa) and one fungi (Aspergillus niger). The results showed that the methanol extracts of both leaves and bark showed antimicrobial activity on three tested bacteria and no effect on A.niger. In methanol extracts S.aureus showed maximum sensitivity (inhibition zone 28mm) followed by E.coli (inhibition zone 16mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 12mm). Diethyl ether extracts of leaves were also showed maximum inhibition on S.aureus followed by E.coli and P.aeruginosa. Both methanol and diethyl ether extracts of bark showed antimicrobial activity on three types of tested bacteria and very less inhibition activity on A.niger. But comparatively bark extracts of both the solvents were showed less antimicrobial activity than leaves extracts on the tested microbes.
JEJUNUM FREE FLAP AS A SURGICAL SOLUTION IN A PARTIAL ILEOCOLIC TRANSPLANT NECROSIS
R. Neagoe (1), (1), (2), (1), (1), (,D. Zamfir,L. Toma,G. Popescu
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2008,
Abstract: Among the postoperative complications in esophageal surgery, the partial or total substitut necrosis is one of the most challenging and frightening to life complication. The causes which ultimately lead to a partial or total substitut necrosis are multiple such as anastomotic tension, superior thoracal inlet compressions etc. Jejunum free flap is known in surgical literature as a viable method of reconstruction after extensive cervical cancer resections. We present a clinical case where this method was used for reconstruction after a partial esophageal substitut necrosis.
Code Clone Detection with Refactoring support Through Textual analysis
G. Anil kumar1
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Copying code fragments and then reuse by pasting with or without minor modifications or adaptations are common activities in software development. This type of reuse approach of existing code is called code cloning and the pasted code fragment without is called a clone of the original. One of the major shortcomings of such duplicated fragments is that if a bug is detected in a code fragment; all the other fragments similar to it should be investigated to check the possible existence of the same bug in the similar fragments. In this paper, we compare different clone detection techniques and tools. First part of this paper explains the classification of clone detection techniques and the later work done in this area and proposed method.
DOSE DEPENDENT IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED ESCHERICHIA COLI MASTITIC ISOLATE IN RABBITS
M. ABUBAKAR, K. IBRAHIM1 AND G. MUHAMMAD1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2007,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate dose-dependant immune response of Escherichia coli isolate in rabbits. Escherichia coli was isolated from mastitic buffaloes and characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. A total of 12 adult healthy rabbits, randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D) were used to evaluate the dose-dependent immune response to Escherichia coli antigen. Inocula containing 106 cells/ml of Escherichia coli were injected subcutaneously with the increasing doses of 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80 ml in groups A, B and C, respectively. The rabbits of group D were kept as un-inoculated control. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for four consecutive weeks from rabbits of all groups and analyzed for serum antibody titers. An increased geomean antibody titer (GMT), reaching 78.8, was observed in rabbits of Group C. The other two groups (Groups A and B) showed progressive increase in GMT up to day 21 which declined later, while the control group presented no response.
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