Abstract:
The equilibrium of a resistive axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow surrounded by a conductor is investigated within the framework of the nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic theory. It is proved that a) the poloidal current density vanishes and b) apart from an idealized case the pressure profile should vanish on the plasma boundary. For the cases of isothermal magnetic surfaces, isentropic magnetic surfaces and magnetic surfaces with constant density, the equilibrium states obey to an elliptic partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function, which is identical in form to the corresponding equation governing ideal equilibria. The conductivity, which can not be either uniform or a surface quantity, results however in a restriction of the possible classes of equilibrium solutions, e.g., for the cases considered the only possible equilibria with Spitzer conductivity are of cylindrical shape.

Abstract:
The equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma with purely poloidal mass flow and cross section of arbitrary shape is investigated within the framework of the ideal MHD theory. For the system under consideration it is shown that only incompressible flows are possible and, conscequently, the general two dimensional flow equilibrium equations reduce to a single second-order quasilinear partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function $\psi$, in which four profile functionals of $\psi$ appear. Apart from a singularity occuring when the modulus of Mach number associated with the Alfv\'en velocity for the poloidal magnetic field is unity, this equation is always elliptic and permits the construction of several classes of analytic solutions. Specific exact equlibria for a plasma confined within a perfectly conducting circular cylindrical boundary and having i) a flat current density and ii) a peaked current density are obtained and studied.

Abstract:
A previous stability condition (see Throumoulopoulos and Tasso, Physics of Plasmas 14, 122104 (2007)) for incompressible plasmas with field aligned flows is extended to gravitating plasmas including self-gravitation. It turns out that the stability condition is affected by gravitation through the equilibrium values only.

Abstract:
The impact of an equilibrium radial electric field $E $ on negative-energy perturbations (NEPs) (which are potentially dangerous because they can lead to either linear or nonlinear explosive instabilities) in cylindrical equilibria of magnetically confined plasmas is investigated within the framework of Maxwell-drift kinetic theory. It turns out that for wave vectors with a non-vanishing component parallel to the magnetic field the conditions for the existence of NEPs in equilibria with E=0 [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and D. Pfirsch, Phys. Rev. E 53, 2767 (1996)] remain valid, while the condition for the existence of perpendicular NEPs, which are found to be the most important perturbations, is modified. For $|e_i\phi|\approx T_i$ ($\phi$ is the electrostatic potential) and $T_i/T_e > \beta_c\approx P/(B^2/8\pi)$ ($P$ is the total plasma pressure), a case which is of operational interest in magnetic confinement systems, the existence of perpendicular NEPs depends on $e_\nu E$, where $e_\nu$ is the charge of the particle species $\nu$. In this case the electric field can reduce the NEPs activity in the edge region of tokamaklike and stellaratorlike equilibria with identical parabolic pressure profiles, the reduction of electron NEPs being more pronounced than that of ion NEPs.

Abstract:
A previous proof of non existence of tokamak equilibria with purely poloidal flow within macroscopic theory [Throumoulopoulos, Weitzner, Tasso, Physics of Plasmas Vol. 13, 122501 (2006)] motivated this microscopic analysis near magnetic axis for toroidal and "straight" tokamak plasmas. Despite the new exact solutions of Vlasov's equation found here, the structure of macroscopic flows remains elusive.

Abstract:
The conditions for the existence of negative-energy perturbations (which could be nonlinearly unstable and cause anomalous transport) are investigated in the framework of linearized collisionless Maxwell-drift kinetic theory for the case of equilibria of magnetically confined, circularly cylindrical plasmas and vanishing initial field perturbations. For wave vectors with a non-vanishing component parallel to the magnetic field, the plane equilibrium conditions (derived by Throumoulopoulos and Pfirsch [Phys Rev. E {\bf 49}, 3290 (1994)]) are shown to remain valid, while the condition for perpendicular perturbations (which are found to be the most important modes) is modified. Consequently, besides the tokamak equilibrium regime in which the existence of negative-energy perturbations is related to the threshold value of 2/3 of the quantity $\eta_\nu = \frac {\partial \ln T_\nu} {\partial \ln N_\nu}$, a new regime appears, not present in plane equilibria, in which negative-energy perturbations exist for {\em any} value of $\eta_\nu$. For various analytic cold-ion tokamak equilibria a substantial fraction of thermal electrons are associated with negative-energy perturbations (active particles). In particular, for linearly stable equilibria of a paramagnetic plasma with flat electron temperature profile ($\eta_e=0$), the entire velocity space is occupied by active electrons. The part of the velocity space occupied by active particles increases from the center to the plasma edge and is larger in a paramagnetic plasma than in a diamagnetic plasma with the same pressure profile. It is also shown that, unlike in plane equilibria, negative-energy perturbations exist in force-free reversed-field pinch equilibria with a substantial fraction of active particles.

Abstract:
The present study is a continuation of a previous one on "hyperelliptic" axisymmetric equilibria started in [Tasso and Throumoulopoulos, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2378 (1998)]. Specifically, some equilibria with incompressible flow nonaligned with the magnetic field and restricted by appropriate side conditions like "isothermal" magnetic surfaces, "isodynamicity" or P + B^2/2 constant on magnetic surfaces are found to be reducible to elliptic integrals. The third class recovers recent equilibria found in [Schief, Phys. Plasmas 10, 2677 (2003)]. In contrast to field aligned flows, all solutions found here have nonzero toroidal magnetic field on and elliptic surfaces near the magnetic axis.

Abstract:
Vlasov equilibria of axisymmetric plasmas with vacuum toroidal magnetic field can be reduced, up to a selection of ions and electrons distributions functions, to a Grad-Shafranov-like equation. Quasineutrality narrow the choice of the distributions functions. In contrast to two-dimensional translationally symmetric equilibria whose electron distribution function consists of a displaced Maxwellian, the toroidal equilibria need deformed Maxwellians. In order to be able to carry through the calculations, this deformation is produced by means of either a Heaviside step function or an exponential function. The resulting Grad-Shafranov-like equations are established explicitly.

Abstract:
A recent study on axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows [H. Tasso and G. N. Throumoulopoulos, Phys. Plasmas {\bf 5}, 2378 (1998)] is extended to the generic case of helically symmetric equilibria with incompressible flows. It is shown that the equilibrium states of the system under consideration are governed by an elliptic partial differential equation for the helical magnetic flux function $\psi$ containing five surface quantities along with a relation for the pressure. The above mentioned equation can be transformed to one possessing differential part identical in form to the corresponding static equilibrium equation, which is amenable to several classes of analytic solutions. In particular, equilibria with electric fields perpendicular to the magnetic surfaces and non-constant-Mach-number flows are constructed. Unlike the case in axisymmetric equilibria with isothermal magnetic surfaces, helically symmetric $T=T(\psi)$ equilibria are over-determined, i.e., in this case the equilibrium equations reduce to a set of eight ordinary differential equations with seven surface quantities. In addition, it is proved the non-existence of incompressible helically symmetric equilibria with (a) purely helical flows (b) non-parallel flows with isothermal magnetic surfaces and the magnetic field modulus being a surface quantity (omnigenous equilibria).

Abstract:
It is proved that (a) the solutions of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equation, which describe the equlibrium states of a cylindrical plasma with purely poloidal flow and arbitrary cross sectional shape [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and G. Pantis, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fusion 38, 1817 (1996)] are also valid for incompressible equlibrium flows with the axial velocity component being a free surface quantity and (b) for the case of isothermal incompressible equilibria the magnetic surfaces have necessarily circular cross section.