Abstract:
The idea of writing a table of probabilistic data for a quantum or classical system, and of decomposing this table in a compact way, leads to a shortcut for Hardy's formalism, and gives new perspectives on foundational issues.

Abstract:
The consistency of the Shannon entropy, when applied to outcomes of quantum experiments, is analysed. It is shown that the Shannon entropy is fully consistent and its properties are never violated in quantum settings, but attention must be paid to logical and experimental contexts. This last remark is shown to apply regardless of the quantum or classical nature of the experiments.

Abstract:
It is shown how, given a "probability data table" for a quantum or classical system, the representation of states and measurement outcomes as vectors in a real vector space follows in a natural way. Some properties of the resulting sets of these vectors are discussed, as well as some connexions with the quantum-mechanical formalism.

Abstract:
The hypothetical possibility of distinguishing preparations described by non-orthogonal density matrices does not necessarily imply a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, as was instead stated by von Neumann. On the other hand, such a possibility would surely mean that the particular density-matrix space (and related Hilbert space) adopted would not be adequate to describe the hypothetical new experimental facts. These points are shown by making clear the distinction between physical preparations and the density matrices which represent them, and then comparing a "quantum" thermodynamic analysis given by Peres with a "classical" one given by Jaynes.

Abstract:
What is the relationship between plausibility logic and the principle of maximum entropy? When does the principle give unreasonable or wrong results? When is it appropriate to use the rule `expectation = average'? Can plausibility logic give the same answers as the principle, and better answers if those of the principle are unreasonable? To try to answer these questions, this study offers a numerical collection of plausibility distributions given by the maximum-entropy principle and by plausibility logic for a set of fifteen simple problems: throwing dice.

Abstract:
Some conjectures and open problems in convex geometry are presented, and their physical origin, meaning, and importance, for quantum theory and generic statistical theories, are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
To base the kilogram definition on the atomic mass of the silicon 28 atom, the present relative uncertainty of the silicon 28 lattice parameter must lowered to 3E-9. To achieve this goal, a new experimental apparatus capable of a centimetre measurement-baseline has been made at the INRIM. The comparison between the determinations of the lattice parameter of crystals MO*4 of INRIM and WASO4.2a of PTB is intended to verify the measurement capabilities and to assess the limits of this experiment.

Abstract:
A generalization of two recently proposed general relativity Hamiltonians, to the case of a general (d+1)-dimensional dilaton gravity theory in a manifold with a timelike or spacelike outer boundary, is presented.

Abstract:
An operational measure to quantify the sizes of some ``macroscopic quantum superpositions'', realized in recent experiments, is proposed. The measure is based on the fact that a superposition presents greater sensitivity in interferometric applications than its superposed constituent states. This enhanced sensitivity, or ``interference utility'', may then be used as a size criterion among superpositions.

Abstract:
In a watt balance experiment, separate measurements of magnetic force and induced electric potential in a conductor in a magnetic field allow for a virtual comparison between mechanical and electrical powers, which leads to and an accurate measurement of the Planck constant. In this paper, the macroscopic equations for the magnetic force and the induced electric potential are re-examined from a microscopic point of view and the corrective terms due to a non-uniform density of the conduction electrons induced by their interaction with the magnetic field are investigated. The results indicate that these corrections are irrelevant to the watt balance operation.