Abstract:
We present a simulation study of the charging of a dust grain immersed in a plasma, considering the effect of electron emission from the grain (thermionic effect). It is shown that the OML theory is no longer reliable when electron emission becomes large: screening can no longer be treated within the Debye-Huckel approach and an attractive potential well forms, leading to the possibility of attractive forces on other grains with the same polarity. We suggest to perform laboratory experiments where emitting dust grains could be used to create non-conventional dust crystals or macro-molecules.

Abstract:
We describe a spectral method for the numerical solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system where the velocity space is decomposed by means of an Hermite basis, and the configuration space is discretized via a Fourier decomposition. The novelty of our approach is an implicit time discretization that allows exact conservation of charge, momentum and energy. The computational efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of this method are compared to the fully-implicit PIC method recently introduced by Markidis and Lapenta (2011) and Chen et al. (2011). The following examples are discussed: Langmuir wave, Landau damping, ion-acoustic wave, two-stream instability. The Fourier-Hermite spectral method can achieve solutions that are several orders of magnitude more accurate at a fraction of the cost with respect to PIC. This paper concludes the study presented in Camporeale et al. (2013) where the same method has been described for a semi-implicit time discretization, and was compared against an explicit PIC.

Abstract:
The kinetic features of secondary magnetic reconnection in a single flux rope undergoing internal kink instability are studied by means of three-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. Several signatures of secondary magnetic reconnection are identified in the plane perpendicular to the flux rope: a quadrupolar electron and ion density structure and a bipolar Hall magnetic field develop in proximity of the reconnection region. The most intense electric fields form perpendicularly to the local magnetic field, and a reconnection electric field is identified in the plane perpendicular to the flux rope. An electron current develops along the reconnection line in the opposite direction of the electron current supporting the flux rope magnetic field structure. Along the reconnection line, several bipolar structures of the electric field parallel to the magnetic field occur making the magnetic reconnection region turbulent. The reported signatures of secondary magnetic reconnection can help to localize magnetic reconnection events in space, astrophysical and fusion plasmas.

Abstract:
The overall goal of this paper is to investigate the theoretical foundations of algorithmic verification techniques for first order linear logic specifications. The fragment of linear logic we consider in this paper is based on the linear logic programming language called LO enriched with universally quantified goal formulas. Although LO was originally introduced as a theoretical foundation for extensions of logic programming languages, it can also be viewed as a very general language to specify a wide range of infinite-state concurrent systems. Our approach is based on the relation between backward reachability and provability highlighted in our previous work on propositional LO programs. Following this line of research, we define here a general framework for the bottom-up evaluation of first order linear logic specifications. The evaluation procedure is based on an effective fixpoint operator working on a symbolic representation of infinite collections of first order linear logic formulas. The theory of well quasi-orderings can be used to provide sufficient conditions for the termination of the evaluation of non trivial fragments of first order linear logic.

Abstract:
We present a technique for the automated verification of abstract models of multithreaded programs providing fresh name generation, name mobility, and unbounded control. As high level specification language we adopt here an extension of communication finite-state machines with local variables ranging over an infinite name domain, called TDL programs. Communication machines have been proved very effective for representing communication protocols as well as for representing abstractions of multithreaded software. The verification method that we propose is based on the encoding of TDL programs into a low level language based on multiset rewriting and constraints that can be viewed as an extension of Petri Nets. By means of this encoding, the symbolic verification procedure developed for the low level language in our previous work can now be applied to TDL programs. Furthermore, the encoding allows us to isolate a decidable class of verification problems for TDL programs that still provide fresh name generation, name mobility, and unbounded control. Our syntactic restrictions are in fact defined on the internal structure of threads: In order to obtain a complete and terminating method, threads are only allowed to have at most one local variable (ranging over an infinite domain of names).

Abstract:
We present a technique for the automated verification of abstract models of multithreaded programs providing fresh name generation, name mobility, and unbounded control. As high level specification language we adopt here an extension of communication finite-state machines with local variables ranging over an infinite name domain, called TDL programs. Communication machines have been proved very effective for representing communication protocols as well as for representing abstractions of multithreaded software. The verification method that we propose is based on the encoding of TDL programs into a low level language based on multiset rewriting and constraints that can be viewed as an extension of Petri Nets. By means of this encoding, the symbolic verification procedure developed for the low level language in our previous work can now be applied to TDL programs. Furthermore, the encoding allows us to isolate a decidable class of verification problems for TDL programs that still provide fresh name generation, name mobility, and unbounded control. Our syntactic restrictions are in fact defined on the internal structure of threads: In order to obtain a complete and terminating method, threads are only allowed to have at most one local variable (ranging over an infinite domain of names).

Abstract:
The survivability of dust being transported in the magnetized sheath near the divertor plate of a tokamak and its impact on the desired balance of erosion and redeposition for a steady-state reactor are investigated. Two different divertor scenarios are considered. The first is characterized by an energy flux perpendicular to the plate $q_0\simeq 1$ MW/m$^2$ typical of current short-pulse tokamaks. The second has $q_0\simeq 10$ MW/m$^2$ and is relevant to long-pulse machines like ITER or DEMO. It is shown that micrometer dust particles can survive rather easily near the plates of a divertor plasma with $q_0\simeq 1$ MW/m$^2$ because thermal radiation provides adequate cooling for the dust particle. On the other hand, the survivability of micrometer dust particles near the divertor plates is drastically reduced when $q_0\simeq 10$ MW/m$^2$. Micrometer dust particles redeposit their material non-locally, leading to a net poloidal mass migration across the divertor. Smaller particles (with radius $\sim 0.1$ $\mu$m) cannot survive near the divertor and redeposit their material locally. Bigger particle (with radius $\sim 10$ $\mu$m) can instead survive partially and move outside the divertor strike points, thus causing a net loss of divertor material to dust accumulation inside the chamber and some non-local redeposition. The implications of these results for ITER are discussed.

Abstract:
We introduce a new class of graph transformation systems in which rewrite rules can be guarded by universally quantified conditions on the neighbourhood of nodes. These conditions are defined via special graph patterns which may be transformed by the rule as well. For the new class for graph rewrite rules, we provide a symbolic procedure working on minimal representations of upward closed sets of configurations. We prove correctness and effectiveness of the procedure by a categorical presentation of rewrite rules as well as the involved order, and using results for well-structured transition systems. We apply the resulting procedure to the analysis of the Distributed Dining Philosophers protocol on an arbitrary network structure.

Abstract:
We summarize the main results proved in recent work on the parameterized verification of safety properties for ad hoc network protocols. We consider a model in which the communication topology of a network is represented as a graph. Nodes represent states of individual processes. Adjacent nodes represent single-hop neighbors. Processes are finite state automata that communicate via selective broadcast messages. Reception of a broadcast is restricted to single-hop neighbors. For this model we consider a decision problem that can be expressed as the verification of the existence of an initial topology in which the execution of the protocol can lead to a configuration with at least one node in a certain state. The decision problem is parametric both on the size and on the form of the communication topology of the initial configurations. We draw a complete picture of the decidability and complexity boundaries of this problem according to various assumptions on the possible topologies.

Abstract:
The structure of an XML document can be optionally specified by means of XML Schema, thus enabling the exploitation of structural information for efficient document handling. Upon schema evolution, or when exchanging documents among different collections exploiting related but not identical schemas, the need may arise of adapting a document, known to be valid for a given schema S, to a target schema S'. The adaptation may require knowledge of the element semantics and cannot always be automatically derived. In this paper, we present an automata-based method for the static analysis of user-defined XML document adaptations, expressed as sequences of XQuery Update update primitives. The key feature of the method is the use of an automatic inference method for extracting the type, expressed as a Hedge Automaton, of a sequence of document updates. The type is computed starting from the original schema S and from rewriting rules that formally define the operational semantics of a sequence of document updates. Type inclusion can then be used as conformance test w.r.t. the type extracted from the target schema S'.