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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189626 matches for " G. Georgakos "
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Impact of negative and positive bias temperature stress on 6T-SRAM cells
S. Drapatz,G. Georgakos,D. Schmitt-Landsiedel
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2009,
Abstract: With introduction of high-k gate oxide materials, the degradation effect Positive Bias Temperature Instability (PBTI) is starting to play an important role. Together with the still effective Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) it has significant influence on the 6T SRAM memory cell. We present simulations of both effects, first isolated, then combined in SRAM operation. During long hold of one data, both effects add up to a worst case impact. This leads to an asymmetric cell, which, in a directly following read cycle, combined with the generally unavoidable production variations, maximizes the risk of destructive reading. In future SRAM designs, it will be important to consider this combination of effects to avoid an undesired write event.
Impact of process variations and long term degradation on 6T-SRAM cells
Th. Fischer,A. Olbrich,G. Georgakos,B. Lemaitre
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2007,
Abstract: In modern deep-submicron CMOS technologies voltage scaling can not keep up with the scaling of the dimensions of transistors. Therefore the electrical fields inside the transistors are not constant anymore, while scaling down the device area. The rising electrical fields bring up reliability problems, such as hot carrier injection. Also other long term degradation mechanisms like Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) come into the focus of circuit design. Along with process device parameter variations (threshold voltage, mobility), variations due to the degradation of devices form a big challenge for designers to build circuits that both yield high under the influence of process variations and remain functional with respect to long term device drift. In this work we present the influence of long term degradation and process variations on the performance of SRAM core-cells and parametric yield of SRAM arrays. For different use cases we show the performance degradation depending on temperature and supply voltage.
Theory of circuit block switch-off
S. Henzler,J. Berthold,G. Georgakos,D. Schmitt-Landsiedel
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2004,
Abstract: Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO) schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.
A Characterization of the Members of a Subfamily of Power Series Distributions  [PDF]
G. Nanjundan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.26099
Abstract: This paper discusses a characterization of the members of a subfamily of power series distributions when their probability generating functions satisfy the functional equation where a, b and c are constants and is the derivative of f.
Double Negative Left-Handed Metamaterials for Miniaturization of Rectangular Microstrip Antenna  [PDF]
G. Singh
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.26044
Abstract: In this paper, I have explored a significant concept for the miniaturization of microstrip patch antenna configuration by using the double negative (DNG) left-handed Metamaterials, which have dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability both negative, simultaneously. It is achieved through the concept of phase-compensation by thin slab consist of the double positive (DPS) material, which have dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability both positive, simultaneously and DNG metamaterials as a substrate of the microstrip patch antenna. By combining the DNG metamaterial slab with the slab made of DPS materials form a cavity resonator whose dispersion relation is independent of the sum of thickness of the slabs filling this cavity but it depends on the ratio of their thicknesses. This cavity constitutes by DPS and DNG material is used as substrate of the microstrip antennas and the DNG material slab is behave as phase compensator.
Dynamic and Configurational Approach to the Glass Transition by Nanoscale Cooperativity  [PDF]
G. Romeo
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.23012
Abstract: Here we examine the findings obtained for disaccharide/water mixtures near glass transition that involves cooperative relaxation features on kinetic by viscosity and on thermodynamic behaviour by neutron scattering. Then to address cooperative phenomena that mitigate the Debye-Waller behaviour we invoke Adam-Gibbs’ idea of a cooperative rearranging region. Neutron results suggest that the excess mean square displacement behaves as free volume and is closely connected to an elementary step of the structural relaxation. Then viscosity data evidence a breakdown of the Einstein-Debye relation, decoupling attributed to the intermolecular cooperativity.
Confidence Level Estimator of Cosmological Parameters  [PDF]
G. Sironi
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329157
Abstract: Cosmological Models frequently suggest the existence of physical, quantities, e.g. dark energy, we cannot yet observe and measure directly. Their values are obtained indirectly setting them equal to values and accuracy of the associated model parameters which best fit model and observation. Apparently results are so accurate that some researchers speak of precision cosmology. The accuracy attributed to these indirect values of the physical quantities however does not include the uncertainty of the model used to get them. We suggest a Confidence Level Estimator to be attached to these indirect measurements and apply it to current cosmological models.
Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis in Anabantoidei fish  [PDF]
G. Degani
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33039

The decline of ornamental fish populations in their native habitats due to over-fishing has brought about the development of ornamental fish aquaculture, to which fish of the Anabantoidei suborder are important contributors. The genetic variations among species of this suborder were examined by mitochondrial gene sequencing analysis using the cytochrome b and 12S genes. According to the cytochrome b gene, the most similar strains were Trichogaster trichopterus (gold) and Trichogaster trichopterus (blue) (100%). Trichogaster leerii was less similar to them (86.0%), and an even lower similarity was found between the species T. trichopterus and Trichogaster labiosus (85.6%). The least similarity was observed between Betta betta and the genera Colisa (50.2%) and Trichogaster (60.1%). The phylogenetic trees of 12S and cytochrome b were very similar. According to 12S, the similarity between Trichogaster species was high (91.4% - 100%), and between species of this genus and Colisa lalia, it was lower (88.4%). In conclusion, sequence analyses, based on cytochrome

Estimation of Parameter in a New Truncated Distribution  [PDF]
G. Nanjundan
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.34025
Abstract: This paper discusses the estimation of the parameter in a truncated form of a discrete distribution which is analogous to Burr distribution. The maximum likelihood and the moment estimators of the parameter are obtained. Their asymptotic properties are also established.
The Kieswerk of Pointe Saint-Mathieu and the Atlantic Wall  [PDF]
G. Tomezzoli
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.54017
Abstract: In this article a construction of the Atlantic Wall discovered on 02/01/2006 near the Pointe Saint Mathieu (Finistère, France) is identified and its purpose is clarified. It witnessed the presence, during the World War II, at Pointe Saint-Mathieu, of a Kieswerk or pebble factory in which the pebbles and/or crushed pebbles of the Ero Vili were stored and distributed. The Kieswerk was very likely to have participated in the construction of the Atlantic Wall fortifications of the Pointe Saint-Mathieu.
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