Abstract:
We describe an iterative method to optimize the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) for the low-energy subspace of local Hamiltonians on a D-dimensional lattice. For translation invariant systems the cost of this optimization is logarithmic in the linear system size. Specialized algorithms for the treatment of infinite systems are also described. Benchmark simulation results are presented for a variety of 1D systems, namely Ising, Potts, XX and Heisenberg models. The potential to compute expected values of local observables, energy gaps and correlators is investigated.

Abstract:
We demonstrate, in the context of quadratic fermion lattice models in one and two spatial dimensions, the potential of entanglement renormalization (ER) to define a proper real-space renormalization group transformation. Our results show, for the first time, the validity of the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) to describe ground states in two dimensions, even at a quantum critical point. They also unveil a connection between the performance of ER and the logarithmic violations of the boundary law for entanglement in systems with a one-dimensional Fermi surface. ER is recast in the language of creation/annihilation operators and correlation matrices.

Abstract:
Entanglement renormalization techniques are applied to numerically investigate the ground state of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice. Lattices of N={36,144,inf} sites with periodic boundary conditions are considered. For the infinite lattice, the best approximation to the ground state is found to be a valence bond crystal (VBC) with a 36-site unit cell, compatible with a previous proposal. Its energy per site, E=-0.43221, is an exact upper bound and is lower than the energy of any previous (gapped or algebraic) spin liquid candidate for the ground state.

Abstract:
The ability of entanglement renormalization (ER) to generate a proper real-space renormalization group (RG) flow in extended quantum systems is analysed in the setting of harmonic lattice systems in D=1 and D=2 spatial dimensions. A conceptual overview of the steps involved in momentum-space RG is provided and contrasted against the equivalent steps in the real-space setting. The real-space RG flow, as generated by ER, is compared against the exact results from momentum-space RG, including an investigation of a critical fixed point and the effect of relevant and irrelevant perturbations.

Abstract:
Tensor network states are used to approximate ground states of local Hamiltonians on a lattice in D spatial dimensions. Different types of tensor network states can be seen to generate different geometries. Matrix product states (MPS) in D=1 dimensions, as well as projected entangled pair states (PEPS) in D>1 dimensions, reproduce the D-dimensional physical geometry of the lattice model; in contrast, the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) generates a (D+1)-dimensional holographic geometry. Here we focus on homogeneous tensor networks, where all the tensors in the network are copies of the same tensor, and argue that certain structural properties of the resulting many-body states are preconditioned by the geometry of the tensor network and are therefore largely independent of the choice of variational parameters. Indeed, the asymptotic decay of correlations in homogeneous MPS and MERA for D=1 systems is seen to be determined by the structure of geodesics in the physical and holographic geometries, respectively; whereas the asymptotic scaling of entanglement entropy is seen to always obey a simple boundary law -- that is, again in the relevant geometry. This geometrical interpretation offers a simple and unifying framework to understand the structural properties of, and helps clarify the relation between, different tensor network states. In addition, it has recently motivated the branching MERA, a generalization of the MERA capable of reproducing violations of the entropic boundary law in D>1 dimensions.

Abstract:
The multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) can be used, in its scale invariant version, to describe the ground state of a lattice system at a quantum critical point. From the scale invariant MERA one can determine the local scaling operators of the model. Here we show that, in the presence of a global symmetry $\mathcal{G}$, it is also possible to determine a class of non-local scaling operators. Each operator consist, for a given group element $g\in\mathcal{G}$, of a semi-infinite string $\tGamma_g$ with a local operator $\phi$ attached to its open end. In the case of the quantum Ising model, $\mathcal{G}= \mathbb{Z}_2$, they correspond to the disorder operator $\mu$, the fermionic operators $\psi$ and $\bar{\psi}$, and all their descendants. Together with the local scaling operators identity $\mathbb{I}$, spin $\sigma$ and energy $\epsilon$, the fermionic and disorder scaling operators $\psi$, $\bar{\psi}$ and $\mu$ are the complete list of primary fields of the Ising CFT. Thefore the scale invariant MERA allows us to characterize all the conformal towers of this CFT.

Abstract:
This work explores the use of a tree tensor network ansatz to simulate the ground state of a local Hamiltonian on a two-dimensional lattice. By exploiting the entropic area law, the tree tensor network ansatz seems to produce quasi-exact results in systems with sizes well beyond the reach of exact diagonalisation techniques. We describe an algorithm to approximate the ground state of a local Hamiltonian on a L times L lattice with the topology of a torus. Accurate results are obtained for L={4,6,8}, whereas approximate results are obtained for larger lattices. As an application of the approach, we analyse the scaling of the ground state entanglement entropy at the quantum critical point of the model. We confirm the presence of a positive additive constant to the area law for half a torus. We also find a logarithmic additive correction to the entropic area law for a square block. The single copy entanglement for half a torus reveals similar corrections to the area law with a further term proportional to 1/L.

Abstract:
Understanding the collective behavior of a quantum many-body system, a system composed of a large number of interacting microscopic degrees of freedom, is a key aspect in many areas of contemporary physics. However, as a direct consequence of the difficultly of the so-called many-body problem, many exotic quantum phenomena involving extended systems, such as high temperature superconductivity, remain not well understood on a theoretical level. Entanglement renormalization is a recently proposed numerical method for the simulation of many-body systems which draws together ideas from the renormalization group and from the field of quantum information. By taking due care of the quantum entanglement of a system, entanglement renormalization has the potential to go beyond the limitations of previous numerical methods and to provide new insight to quantum collective phenomena. This thesis comprises a significant portion of the research development of ER following its initial proposal. This includes exploratory studies with ER in simple systems of free particles, the development of the optimisation algorithms associated to ER, and the early applications of ER in the study of quantum critical phenomena and frustrated spin systems.

Abstract:
We discuss in detail algorithms for implementing tensor network renormalization (TNR) for the study of classical statistical and quantum many-body systems. Firstly, we recall established techniques for how the partition function of a 2D classical many-body system or the Euclidean path integral of a 1D quantum system can be represented as a network of tensors, before describing how TNR can be implemented to efficiently contract the network via a sequence of coarse-graining transformations. The efficacy of the TNR approach is then benchmarked for the 2D classical statistical and 1D quantum Ising models; in particular the ability of TNR to maintain a high level of accuracy over sustained coarse-graining transformations, even at a critical point, is demonstrated.

Abstract:
We propose and test a scheme for entanglement renormalization capable of addressing large two-dimensional quantum lattice systems. In a translationally invariant system, the cost of simulations grows only as the logarithm of the lattice size; at a quantum critical point, the simulation cost becomes independent of the lattice size and infinite systems can be analysed. We demonstrate the performance of the scheme by investigating the low energy properties of the 2D quantum Ising model on a square lattice of linear size L={6,9,18,54,inf} with periodic boundary conditions. We compute the ground state and evaluate local observables and two-point correlators. We also produce accurate estimates of the critical magnetic field and critical exponent beta. A calculation of the energy gap shows that it scales as 1/L at the critical point.