Abstract:
We outline the potential gains of quantum correlated imaging and compare it to classical correlated imaging. As shown earlier by A. Gatti, E. Bambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, ArXive:quant-ph/0405056, classical correlated imaging can mimic most features of quantum imaging but at lower signal-to-noise ratio for a given mean photon number (or intensity). In this paper we specifically investigate coherent correlated imaging, and show that while it is possible to perform such imaging using a thermal source, a coherent light-source provides a less demanding experimental setup. We also compare the performance to what can be obtained by using non-classical light.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that for an arbitrary number of identical particles, each defined on a Hilbert-space of arbitrary dimension, there exists a whole ladder of relations of complementarity between local, and every conceivable kind of joint (or nonlocal) measurements. E.g., the more accurate we can know (by a measurement) some joint property of three qubits (projecting the state onto a tripartite entangled state), the less accurate some other property, local to the three qubits, become. We also show that the corresponding complementarity relations are particularly tight for particles defined on prime dimensional Hilbert spaces.

Abstract:
We propose a single-particle experiment that is equivalent to the conventional two-particle experiment used to demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequalities. Hence, we argue that quantum mechanical nonlocality can be demonstrated by single-particle states. The validity of such a claim has been discussed in the literature, but without reaching a clear consensus. We show that the disagreement can be traced to what part of the total state of the experiment one assigns to the (macroscopic) measurement apparatus. However, with a conventional and legitimate interpretation of the measurement process one is led to the conclusion that even a single particle can show nonlocal properties.

Abstract:
Discrete coherent states for a system of $n$ qubits are introduced in terms of eigenstates of the finite Fourier transform. The properties of these states are pictured in phase space by resorting to the discrete Wigner function

Abstract:
We work out the phase-space structure for a system of $n$ qubits. We replace the field of real numbers that label the axes of the continuous phase space by the finite field $\Gal{2^n}$ and investigate the geometrical structures compatible with the notion of unbiasedness. These consist of bundles of discrete curves intersecting only at the origin and satisfying certain additional properties. We provide a simple classification of such curves and study in detail the four- and eight-dimensional cases, analyzing also the effect of local transformations. In this way, we provide a comprehensive phase-space approach to the construction of mutually unbiased bases for $n$ qubits.

Abstract:
For a system of N qubits, spanning a Hilbert space of dimension d=2^N, it is known that there exists d+1 mutually unbiased bases. Different construction algorithms exist, and it is remarkable that different methods lead to sets of bases with different properties as far as separability is concerned. Here we derive the four sets of nine bases for three qubits, and show how they are unitarily related. We also briefly discuss the four-qubit case, give the entanglement structure of sixteen sets of bases,and show some of them, and their interrelations, as examples. The extension of the method to the general case of N qubits is outlined.

Abstract:
It is well established that unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. This requirement fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states. We introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We use two different candidates of distance, namely the Hilbert-Schmidt and the Bures metric, showing that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization. We apply these notions to relevant field states and we demonstrate that they avoid some of the problems arising with the classical definition.

Abstract:
We consider various approaches to treat the phases of a qutrit. Although it is possible to represent qutrits in a convenient geometrical manner by resorting to a generalization of the Poincare sphere, we argue that the appropriate way of dealing with this problem is through phase operators associated with the algebra su(3). The rather unusual properties of these phases are caused by the small dimension of the system and are explored in detail. We also examine the positive operator-valued measures that can describe the qutrit phase properties.

Abstract:
The degree of polarization of a quantum state can be defined as its Hilbert-Schmidt distance to the set of unpolarized states. We demonstrate that the states optimizing this degree for a fixed average number of photons $\bar{N}$ present a fairly symmetric, parabolic photon statistics, with a variance scaling as $\bar{N}^2$. Although no standard optical process yields such a statistics, we show that, to an excellent approximation, a highly squeezed vacuum can be considered as maximally polarized.

Abstract:
We propose a unifying phase-space approach to the construction of mutually unbiased bases for a two-qubit system. It is based on an explicit classification of the geometrical structures compatible with the notion of unbiasedness. These consist of bundles of discrete curves intersecting only at the origin and satisfying certain additional properties. We also consider the feasible transformations between different kinds of curves and show that they correspond to local rotations around the Bloch-sphere principal axes. We suggest how to generalize the method to systems in dimensions that are powers of a prime.