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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 190176 matches for " G. Bianchini "
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Technical Note: REFIR-PAD level 1 data analysis and performance characterization
G. Bianchini ,L. Palchetti
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: The outgoing long-wave radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the far infrared spectral region is mostly unexplored, while is well recognized that the water vapour contribution to greenhouse trapping is dominant in this region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR) study has proven the feasibility of a space-borne Fourier transform spectrometer able to perform the measurement in the 100–1100 cm 1 range with a resolution of 0.5 cm 1. Following this work a prototype of the spectrometer named REFIR-PAD (Prototype for Applications and Development) has been developed to observe the atmospheric radiance from both ground-based sites and from stratospheric balloon platforms. In this work we describe the REFIR-PAD level 1 data analysis procedure, that, starting from raw instrumental data produces the calibrated atmospheric spectral radiance. Performances of the procedure are also described.
Technical Note: REFIR-PAD level 1 data analysis and performance characterization
G. Bianchini,L. Palchetti
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The outgoing long-wave radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the far infrared spectral region is mostly unexplored, while is well recognized that the water vapour contribution to greenhouse trapping is dominant in this region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR) study has proven the feasibility of a space-borne Fourier transform spectrometer able to perform the measurement in the 100–1100 cm 1 range with a resolution of 0.5 cm 1. Following this work a prototype of the spectrometer named REFIR-PAD (Prototype for Applications and Development) has been developed to observe the atmospheric radiance from both ground-based sites and from stratospheric balloon platforms. In this work we describe the REFIR-PAD level 1 data analysis procedure, that, starting from raw instrumental data produces the calibrated atmospheric spectral radiance. Performances of the procedure are also described.
Comportamento da palha de cana-de-a?úcar submetida ao corte por meio de ensaios de bancada
Bianchini, Aloisio;Magalh?es, Paulo S. G.;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662004000200021
Abstract: from an engineering standpoint, few papers on crop residue shearing have been published, especially with respect to sugarcane and information on the subject is scarce. therefore, the objective of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane trash submitted to shearing, as a function of its moisture content, thickness of trash layer and the oblique angle of the blade. a strength transducer, connected to the base of the blades and to an automatic data logger, was utilized to collect data, working at an acquisition rate of 9600 hz. results showed significant differences in the required strength when the oblique angle of the blade is changed, and a linear trend with the amount of trash between 4 and 16 t ha-1. the strength requirement and the energy demand showed an exponential behavior with changes in moisture content of sugarcane trash. for moisture content above 28% (dry basis), the differences between required shearing strengths and energy demands were no longer significant. the maximum shearing strength showed a linear trend which was inversely proportional to the oblique angle of the blade.
Emission Fourier transform spectroscopy for remote sensingof the Earth's atmosphere
G. Bianchini,U. Cortesi,B. Carli
Annals of Geophysics , 2003, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3394
Abstract: Fourier transform emission spectroscopy can make an important contribution in the observation of the Earth's atmosphere and in the investigation of atmospheric physics and chemistry. In this paper, we report the measurement performances and the result obtained by a Fourier transform spectrometer, named SAFIRE-A (Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission - Airborne), operating in the far infrared spectral region from limb sounding observation of the atmospheric emission from a high altitude aircraft. After a short review of the advantages of FTS emission limb sounding in comparison with competing techniques and observation geometries, a detailed description of the instrument is given with the result obtained during the APE-GAIA (Airborne Polar Experiment - Geophysica Aircraft In Antarctica) fi eld campaign carried out over the Antarctic Peninsula.
Eulerian, Lagrangian and Broad continuous solutions to a balance law with non convex flux I
G. Alberti,S. Bianchini,L. Caravenna
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We discuss different notions of continuous solutions to the balance law \[u_t + (f(u ))_x =g \] with $g$ bounded, $f\in C^{2}$, extending previous works relative to the flux $f(u)=u^{2}$. We establish the equivalence among distributional solutions and a suitable notion of Lagrangian solutions for general smooth fluxes. We also establish the ODE reduction on any characteristics under the sharp assumption that the set of inflection points of the flux $f$ is negligible. The correspondence of the source terms in the two settings is matter of a companion work, where we also provide counterexamples when the negligibility on inflection points fails.
Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices
F. Tamburini,G. Anzolin,G. Umbriaco,A. Bianchini,C. Barbieri
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.163903
Abstract: We experimentally and numerically tested the separability of two independent equally-luminous monochromatic and white light sources at the diffraction limit, using Optical Vortices (OV), related to the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) of light. The diffraction pattern of one of the two sources crosses a phase modifying device (fork-hologram) on its center generating the Laguerre-Gaussian (L-G) transform of an Airy disk. The second source, crossing the fork-hologram in positions different from the optical center, acquires different OAM values and generates non-symmetric L-G patterns. We formulated a criterion, based on the asymmetric intensity distribution of the superposed L-G patterns so created, to resolve the two sources at angular distances much below the Rayleigh criterion. Analogous experiments carried out in white light allow angular resolutions which are still one order of magnitude below the Rayleigh criterion. The use OVs might offer new applications for stellar separation in future space experiments.
Optical vortices with starlight: Implications for ground-based stellar coronagraphy
F. Tamburini,G. Anzolin,G. Umbriaco,A. Bianchini,C. Barbieri
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:200810469
Abstract: Using an l = 1 blazed fork-hologram at the focal plane of the Asiago 122 cm telescope, we obtained optical vortices from the stellar system Rasalgethi (alpha Herculis) and from the single star Arcturus (alpha Bootis). We have analyzed the structure of the optical vortices obtained from non-monochromatic starlight under very poor seeing conditions using a fast CCD camera to obtain speckle patterns and carry out the lucky imaging technique, alternative to adaptive optics. With the insertion of a red filter and of a Lyot stop we performed l = 1 optical vortex coronography the double star HD74010. The results are in agreement with theory and numerical simulations. Our results open the way to applications of optical vortices to ground based astronomical observations, in particular for coronagraphy with l > 1 masks. No intrinsic orbital angular momentum was detected in the starlight.
Calculation of the Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction by Deterministic and Monte Carlo Methods
M. Carta,S. Dulla,V. Peluso,P. Ravetto,G. Bianchini
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/584256
Abstract: The studies on Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADSs) have renewed the interest in the theoretical and computational evaluation of the main integral parameters characterizing subcritical systems (e.g., reactivity, effective delayed neutron fraction eff, and mean prompt neutron generation time). In particular, some kinetic parameters, as the effective delayed neutron fraction, are evaluated in Monte Carlo codes by formulations which do not require the calculation of the adjoint flux. This paper is focused on a theoretical and computational analysis about how the different eff definitions are connected and which are the approximations inherent to the Monte Carlo definition with respect to the standard definition involving weighted integrals. By means of a refined transport computational analysis carried out in a coherent and consistent way, that is, using the same deterministic code and neutron data library for the eff evaluation in different ways, the theoretical analysis is numerically confirmed. Both theoretical and numerical results confirm the effectiveness of the Monte Carlo eff evaluation, at least in cases where spectral differences between total and prompt fluxes are negligible with respect to the value of the functionals entering the classical eff formulation.
Glucocorticoid induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) as marker of human regulatory T cells: expansion of the GITR+CD25- cell subset in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
A. Alunno,G. Nocentini,O. Bistoni,R. Bianchini
Reumatismo , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2010.195
Abstract: Objectives: Regulatory T cells (TREG) represent a T cell subset able to modulate immune response by suppressing autoreactive T-lymphocytes. The evidence of a reduced number and an impaired function of this cell population in autoimmune/ inflammatory chronic diseases led to the hypothesis of its involvement in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a well known marker of murine TREG cells, but little is known in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of TREG cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the potential role of GITR as marker of human TREG. Methods: Nineteen SLE patients and 15 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NC) were enrolled. CD4+ T cells were magnetic sorted from peripheral blood by negative selection. Cell phenotype was analyzed through flow-cytometry using primary and secondary antibodies and real time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan probes. Results: The CD25highGITRhigh subset was significantly decreased in SLE patients with respect to NC (0.37±0.21% vs 0.72±0.19%; p<0.05). On the opposite, the CD25-GITRhigh cell population was expanded in the peripheral blood of SLE patients (3.5±2.25 vs 0.70±0.32%, p<0.01). Interestingly, FoxP3 at mRNA level was expressed in both CD25- GITRhigh and CD25highGITRhigh cells, suggesting that both cell subsets have regulatory activity. Conclusions: CD4+CD25-GITRhigh cells are increased in SLE as compared to NC. The expression of high level of GITR, but not CD25, on FoxP3+ cells appears to point to a regulatory phenotype of this peculiar T cell subset.
Actividad “in vitro” de 10 antimicrobianos frente a bacterias anaerobias: Estudio multicéntrico, 1999-2002 “In vitro” activity of ten antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria. A collaborative study, 1999-2002
M. Litterio,H. Bianchini,G. Carloni,A. DI Martino
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: Se evaluó la actividad de ampicilina, ampicilina-sulbactama, cefoxitina, ceftriaxona, imipenem, piperacilina, piperacilina-tazobactama, clindamicina, metronidazol y azitromicina frente a 166 cepas de bacterias anaerobias aisladas en 8 hospitales de Buenos Aires. Se estudiaron: Bacteroides grupo fragilis (65), Fusobacterium spp. (26), Prevotella spp. (21), Porphyromonas spp. (10), Clostridium difficile (10), otros clostridios (12) y cocos gram-positivos (22). Las CIMs se determinaron usando el método patrón de dilución en agar recomendado por el NCCLS, documento M11-A5. Los antibióticos más activos fueron metronidazol y piperacilina-tazobactama que exhibieron valores de CIM90£ 2 μg/ml y £ 4 μg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-negativos y £ 2 μg/ml y £ 8 μg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-positivos, respectivamente. Entre los b-lactámicos el orden de actividad frente a bacilos gram-negativos fue: imipenem > piperacilina > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. En gram-positivos la actividad decreciente fue: piperacilina> imipenem > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. La mayoría de las especies estudiadas mostraron distintos niveles de resistencia con clindamicina y azitromicina. Sin embargo, el 90% de las cepas de Fusobacterium nucleatum y Por-phyromonas spp. fue inhibido por una concentración de 0,125 μg/ml de clindamicina y azitromicina, respectivamente. The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, and azitromycin was assesed against 166 strains of anaerobic bacteria recovered from eight hospitals in Buenos Aires. The strains studied were Bacteroidesfragilis group (65), Fusobacterium spp. (26), Prevotella spp. (21), Porphyromonas spp. (10), Clostridium difficile (10), other clostridia (12), and gram-positive cocci (22). The MICs were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS document M11-A5. Metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam were the most active antimicrobial agents tested and exhibited MIC90values of £ 2 μg/ml and £ 4 μg/ml against gram-negative organisms, and £ 2 μg/ml, and £ 8 μg/ml against gram-positive organisms, respectively. Among b-lactams the activity against gram-negative rods was in the following order: imipenem> piperacillin > cefoxitin > ceftriaxone > ampicillin. Among the gram-positive bacteria the decreased activity was: piperacillin> imipenem> cefoxitin > ceftriaxone > ampicillin. The majority of the species studied showed different degrees of resistance to clindamycin and azitromycin
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