Abstract:
The aim of this work is to review the tunnelling method as an alternative description of the quantum radiation from black holes and cosmological horizons. The method is first formulated and discussed for the case of stationary black holes, then a foundation is provided in terms of analytic continuation throughout complex space-time. The two principal implementations of the tunnelling approach, which are the null geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method, are shown to be equivalent in the stationary case. The Hamilton-Jacobi method is then extended to cover spherically symmetric dynamical black holes, cosmological horizons and naked singularities. Prospects and achievements are discussed in the conclusions.

Abstract:
In the paper, the temperature associated with a dynamical spherically symmetric black hole or with a cosmological horizon is investigated from the point of view of a point-like detector. First, we briefly review the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for a generic dynamical spherically symmetric space-time, and present two applications of the tunneling method. Then, we apply a well-known relativistic quantum theoretical technique, namely the Unruh-DeWitt detector formalism for a conformally coupled scalar field in a generic FRW space-time. As an application, for the generic static black hole case and the FRW de Sitter case, making use of peculiar Kodama observer trajectories, the tunneling semiclassical results are fully recovered, automatically corrected by Tolman factors. Some remarks on the temperature of FRW universe are presented. For more general spaces interpolating de Sitter space with the Einstein-de Sitter universe a second set of poles is present, whose exact role remains to be clarified, plus an extra fluctuating term describing the way equilibrium is reached, similarly to de Sitter space. The simple thermal interpretation found for de Sitter space is lost and forces, at a same time, a different quantum interpretation of the horizon surface gravity for the cosmological FRW models.

Abstract:
The author tells Teatro delle Selve’s practice of “theatre in natural environments”, punctuating the story with the evocation of the literature (essays and narrative) which inspired their research. Moving through poetry and ecological thinking, geophilosophy and apocalyptic suggestions, Acquaviva proposes a possible contemporary meaning of ‘theatre’: a personal and political practice able to wakeup spiritually both the individual and the community, to fournish tools for criticism of present times, to hold back the lack of contact with the symbolic dimension of ritual.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe two approaches that allow to calculate some thermal features as perceived by different observers in curved spacetimes: the tunnelling method and the Unruh-DeWitt detector. The tunnelling phenomenon is a semi-classical approach to the issue of Hawking radiation and allows a straightforward calculation of the horizon temperature in a plethora of scenarios; the Unruh-DeWitt model relies instead on a quantum field-theoretical approach and (whenever possible) gives a more exact answer in terms of transition rates between energy levels of an idealized detector.

Abstract:
We give a brief description of some compelling connections between general relativity and thermodynamics through i) the semi-classical tunnelling method(s) and ii) the field-theoretical modelling of Unruh-DeWitt detectors. In both approaches it is possible to interpret some quantities in a thermodynamical frame.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that it is possible to measure metallicity from the SDSS five-band photometry to better than 0.1 dex using supervised machine learning algorithms. Using spectroscopic estimates of metallicity as ground truth, we build, optimize and train several estimators to predict metallicity. We use the observed photometry, as well as derived quantities such as stellar mass and photometric redshift, as features, and we build two sample data sets at median redshifts of 0.103 and 0.218 and median r-band magnitude of 17.5 and 18.3 respectively. We find that ensemble methods, such as Random Forests of Trees and Extremely Randomized Trees, and Support Vector Machines all perform comparably well and can measure metallicity with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.081 and 0.090 for the two data sets when all objects are included. The fraction of outliers (objects for which the difference between true and predicted metallicity is larger than 0.2 dex) is only 2.2 and 3.9% respectively, and the RMSE decreases to 0.068 and 0.069 if those objects are excluded. Because of the ability of these algorithms to capture complex relationships between data and target, our technique performs better than previously proposed methods that sought to fit metallicity using an analytic fitting formula, and has 3x more constraining power than SED fitting-based methods. Additionally, this method is extremely forgiving of contamination in the training set, thus requiring minimal data cleaning, and is very flexible, particularly in regard to combining photometric data with other constraints (for example, measurements of emission line fluxes). We find that our technique can be used with very satisfactory results for training sample sizes of just a few hundred objects. All the routines to reproduce our results and apply them to other data sets are made available.

Abstract:
In the present paper, Unruh--DeWitt detectors are used in order to investigate the issue of temperature associated with a spherically symmetric dynamical space-times. Firstly, we review the semi-classical tunneling method, then we introduce the Unruh--DeWitt detector approach. We show that for the generic static black hole case and the FRW de Sitter case, making use of peculiar Kodama trajectories, semiclassical and quantum field theoretic techniques give the same standard and well known thermal interpretation, with an associated temperature, corrected by appropriate Tolman factors. For a FRW space-time interpolating de Sitter space with the Einstein--de Sitter universe (that is a more realistic situation in the frame of $\Lambda$CDM cosmologies), we show that the detector response splits into a de Sitter contribution plus a fluctuating term containing no trace of Boltzmann-like factors, but rather describing the way thermal equilibrium is reached in the late time limit. As a consequence, and unlike the case of black holes, the identification of the dynamical surface gravity of a cosmological trapping horizon as an effective temperature parameter seems lost, at least for our co-moving simplified detectors. The possibility remains that a detector performing a proper motion along a Kodama trajectory may register something more, in which case the horizon surface gravity would be associated more likely to vacuum correlations than to particle creation.

Abstract:
We give an interpretation of the temperature in de Sitter universe in terms of a dynamical Unruh effect associated with the Hubble sphere. As with the quantum noise perceived by a uniformly accelerated observer in static space-times, observers endowed with a proper motion can in principle detect the effect. In particular, we study a "Kodama observer" as a two-field Unruh detector for which we show the effect is approximately thermal. We also estimate the back-reaction of the emitted radiation and find trajectories associated with the Kodama vector fields are stable.

Abstract:
A wide range of models describing modifications to General Relativity have been proposed, but no fundamental parameter set exists to describe them. Similarly, no fundamental theory exists for dark energy to parameterize its potential deviation from a cosmological constant. This motivates a model-independent search for deviations from the concordance GR+LambdaCDM cosmological model in large galaxy redshift surveys. We describe two model-independent tests of the growth of cosmological structure, in the form of quantities that must equal one if GR+LambdaCDM is correct. The first, epsilon, was introduced previously as a scale-independent consistency check between the expansion history and structure growth. The second, upsilon, is introduced here as a test of scale-dependence in the linear evolution of matter density perturbations. We show that the ongoing and near-future galaxy redshift surveys WiggleZ, BOSS, and HETDEX will constrain these quantities at the 5-10% level, representing a stringent test of concordance cosmology at different redshifts. When redshift space distortions are used to probe the growth of cosmological structure, galaxies at higher redshift with lower bias are found to be most powerful in detecting deviations from the GR+LambdaCDM model.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider a thought experiment involving the effect of gravitation on an ideal scale containing a photon. If the tidal forces inherent to a gravitational field are neglected, then one is led to scenario which seems to bring about perpetual motion violating the first and second principle of thermodynamics. The tidal effects of gravity must neccessarily be included in order to obtain a consistent physical theory. As a result, Albert Einstein's thought experiments according to which the physical effects of inertia in an accelerated reference frame are equivalent to the effects of gravity in a frame at rest on the surface of a massive body must be reconsidered, since linearly accelerated frames do not produce tidal effects. We argue that the equivalence between inertial effects and gravitation can be restored for rotating frames and in this context a relation with the possible nature of quantum gravity is conjectured.