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Epigeal and Hypogeal Macroinvertebrate Diversity in Different Microhabitats of the Yusmarg Hill Resort (Kashmir, India)
Abroo Ali,G. A. Bhat,Mudasir Ali
Ecologia Balkanica , 2012,
Abstract: Soil macroinvertebrate communities are important within the soil system and contribute to a wide variety of soil processes. A soil study was conducted to assess the composition and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in Yusmarg hill resort of Kashmir valley at four sites characterised by different types of vegetation and interferences like grazing or fencing, during the months of May, June, November and December 2010. During the study, it was observed that different sites exhibited variations in diversity of both epigeal as well as hypogeal soil macroinvertebrates. For epigeal macroinvertebrates, highest diversity was recorded in forest edge (2.089) and inner forest (2.058) and relatively low diversity in grazed (1.61) and fenced areas (1.09). For hypogeal macroinvertebrates, diversity was recorded highest for inner forest site (2.216) than forest edge (1.9) and relatively lower in fenced (1.22) and grazed (1.21) sites. The physical disturbance in the form of grazing and fencing probably reduce the diversity of the soil macro fauna as is inferred from the present study.
Effect of stress on production of heat labile enterotoxin by Escherichia coli
Hegde A,Bhat G,Mallya S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important pathogen responsible for secretory diarrhoea. The production of heat labile enterotoxin (LT), by ETEC, is largely responsible for the pathogenesis of diarrhoea. In the present study we investigated the effect of stress factors such as temperature, pH, osmotic stress and nutritional limitation on the production of LT by ETEC using in-house GMI-ELISA. Four strains of E. coli consisting, one standard strain MTCC 723 and three clinical isolates were used in the study. Maximum amount of LT (OD 3.285) was produced at 37 0 C followed by 40 0 C (OD 3.305). Growth of E. coli in medium with pH 8.6 resulted in maximum amount of LT production (OD 3.489). LT was not detectable when bacteria were grown in medium with pH ≤7.2 and ≥ 9.2. Sodium chloride concentration of 0.2 M stimulated maximum amount of LT production. Maximum amount of LT was produced when the bacteria were grown in medium containing 2.5g/l of glucose. All the stress factors had a significant effect on the LT production by E. coli , though quantitative differences in the various strains were observed.
Effect of exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the virulence of Escherichia coli
Hegde A,Bhat G,Mallya S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: To eliminate pathogenic bacteria, the host presents conditions that are stressful for bacteria. Oxidative stress arises when the concentration of pro-oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion increases to a level over the basal defence capacity of the cell. In the present study, we studied the effect of oxidative stress on the production of certain virulence factors by Escherichia coli . Methods: E. coli was exposed to oxidative stress by growing in the presence of different concentrations of H 2 O 2 . The effect of oxidative stress on the expression of surface hydrophobicity, adherence, haemolysin production, serum resistance and phagocytosis was studied. Results: Oxidative stress caused a significant decrease in the expression of all the virulence factors of E. coli . Conclusions: Synthesis of virulence factors can be significantly altered by oxidative stress and such changes may affect the pathogenicity of E. coli.
Phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance in nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus
Bhat G,Jathana L,Kumar A
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract:
Diuretic activity of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) in rats  [PDF]
A. L. Udupa, Sanjeeva ., Adarsh Benegal, Vinay Prusty, G. Prabhath Kodancha, M. C. Satish Kumar, Vinutha Bhat, U. P. Ratnakar
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.25076
Abstract: Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. p.o. single dose) was tested for its diuretic activity and compared with the standard drug hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/ kg p.o.; single dose). Significant increase in the volume of urine and excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride was recorded when aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri was administered to hydrated albino rats.
Knowledge and Awareness amongst the Nursing Students Regarding Risk of HIV Infection Through Accidental Needlestick Injury
Bhat G,Patnaik B,Pratinidhi A,Gupte A
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2004,
Abstract:
Comparative Study of Herbaceous Vegetation in Lower Dachigam National Park, Kashmir Himalaya, India
S.A. Shameem,P. Soni,G.A. Bhat
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in herbaceous community features in terms of diversity, species richness and distribution pattern in the two different ecosystems i.e., site I (pastureland) and site II (forest) in the lower Dachigam National Park of Kashmir, Himalaya. The pasture site is located outside the National Park and is under grazing were as forest site is located inside the National Park and is protected. The study was done on seasonal basis and the results revealed higher trend for diversity(H') at both sites during summer season (site I = 3.03, site II =2.92). However, dominance index was inversely related to diversity index(H') (site I = 0.06 and site II = 0.07). Richness index showed maximum value in spring (4.12, site II) and summer (3.70, site I). Equability or evenness index obtained higher value in summer (0.94, site I) and winter (0.96, site II). Comparatively on an average site II showed higher trend in Shannon diversity (site I = 2.435, site II = 2.655), richness index (site I = 2.652, site II = 3.297) and equability index (site I = 0.852, site II = 0.915). The frequently occurred dominant species during prominent season based on IVI at site I were Cynodon dactylon, Salvia moorcroftiana and Thymus serphyllum at site II were Arthraxon prinoides, Fragaria nubicola, Poa annua, Poa sp. and Viola indica. The abundance to frequency ratio (A/F) indicated most of the species performed contiguous pattern of distribution. A seasonal picture depicted contagious> random distribution pattern while regular distribution was reported almost negligible. The study concluded that seasons have great influence on species diversity. During spring and summer season an increase in species diversity was observed which declined as autumn and winter approached mainly due to dry environmental conditions, slow growth rate and other climatic factors.
Inner Preputial Flap as Tunica Albuginea Replacement in The Management of Previously
A Bhat, B Sharma, M Dawan, G Saxena
African Journal of Urology , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: To assess the efficacy of an inner preputial skin flap as replacement for the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum after excision of fibrous plaque. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study we evaluated 5 men who presented with impotence, chordee, painful erection and/or painful coitus after previously undiagnosed or untreated penile fracture. In two patients soft tissue X-rays suggested calcification of the plaque, while ultrasonography revealed extension of fibrosis in four cases. In all patients the plaque was excised and the defect in the tunica albuginea was closed with an inner preputial pedicle skin flap. Results: The flaps had taken well in all cases at 3 months follow-up and all patients reported having normal sexual intercourse. Conclusion: Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for management of symptomatic fibrous plaques occurring in undiagnosed, untreated or conservatively managed penile fracture. A defect of more than 1.5 cm after excision of the plaque requires tunica replacement, and an inner preputial flap is a good replacement.Key Words: Penile fracture, complications, fibrous plaque, tunica replacement, inner preputial flap, erectile dysfunction
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Grassland Soils of Yusmarg Hill Resort (Kashmir, India)
Moieza Ashraf,G. A. Bhat,Idrees Yousuf Dar,Mudasir Ali
Ecologia Balkanica , 2012,
Abstract: Physico-chemical analysis was carried out on the grassland soils of Yusmarg Hill Resort, Kashmir during the months of May, June, November and December 2010, at four micro sites with some minor variations in the abiotic and biotic factors including anthropogenic pressures. The following soil characteristics were examined: temperature, texture, moisture, organic matter, pH, and conductivity, content of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon. Soil texture analysis revealed the soils at all the study sites with major proportion being comprised by the sand fraction and having a sandy silt character. The moisture content was found to be directly related to the herbaceous vegetation cover with the highest value at Site 3 (fenced meadow area). The moisture content showed low percentage at Site 2, which was more affected by grazing and thus resulted in less cover of grasses and probably more evaporation of soil moisture from the exposed site. The soils at all sites were from acidic to mildly acidic in character. The amount of organic matter was fairly good except at Site 2 (non-fenced grazing area) probably due to overgrazing during which much of herbage vegetation was picked up by the grazing animals like sheep and cattle. The values of important cations, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, showed a gradual decrease from May to December except at Site 4 (transition between a coniferous forest and a meadow) which may be attributed to a good cover of vegetation and good amount of organic matter.
Taxocoenosis and Distribution of Nektonic Fauna in the Rice Fields of Kashmir (J and K) India
S.W.N. Bahaar,G.A. Bhat
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physiochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (3402N; 7416E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L-1 and a maximum of 10 mg L-1. Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L-1 and 6.1 mg-1. The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies.
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