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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 648191 matches for " Gísli Már Gíslason "
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Life cycles of Eukiefferiella claripennis (Lundbeck 1898) and Eukiefferiella minor (Edwards 1929) (Diptera: Chironomidae) in spring-fed streams of different temperatures with reference to climate change
Elísabet Ragna Hannesdóttir,Gísli Már Gíslason,Jón S ólafsson
Fauna Norvegica , 2012, DOI: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1367
Abstract: The effect of temperature on the life cycles of two chironomid species, Eukiefferiella claripennis and Eukiefferiella minor, was studied by comparing populations from seven spring-fed streams, ranging in annual average temperatures between 5.4°C and 21.3°C. Dependent on stream, both species showed differences in their life cycles: E. claripennis was regarded univoltine in the two coldest streams, IS7 (annual average 5.4°C) and IS11 (5.3°C), and bivoltine or multivoltine in the warmer streams (ranging from 9.7°C to 21.3°C). E. claripennis developed and grew slower in the colder streams compared to the warmer ones. The winter generation in the warmer streams took longer time to complete compared to the summer generation. E. minor was bivoltine in all the streams, with no emergence during the winter in the colder streams, but in one of the warmer streams (IS6, 13.3°C) emergence was continuous throughout the year. In four streams (IS7, cold; IS6, IS5 and IS1, warm) E. minor may even have been multivoltine. There was no trend between the number of generations completed in one year and stream temperature for E. minor. The summer generation of E. minor in the cold stream IS7 produced smaller larvae compared to the winter generation. Following global warming the life cycle of E. claripennis is expected to change from univoltine to bivoltine, and could show changes in emergence pattern. E. minor on the other hand, will likely show less change in its life cycle. Changes in emergence pattern of E. minor could though be possible. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1367. Published online: 17 October 2012.
Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams L’hydraulique fluviale et la température déterminent le métabolisme de ruisseaux géothermiques islandais
Demars B. O.L.,Manson J. R.,ólafsson J. S.,Gíslason G. M.
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/kmae/2011046
Abstract: Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP ER) has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length) but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015), GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP) was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake, river restoration and management should promote habitat diversity and complexity (hyporheic zone, macrophyte patches, substrate heterogeneity), especially for microbial activity. Le métabolisme des écosystèmes aquatiques fluviaux joue un r le critique dans les cycles biogéochimiques planétaires. La complexité des habitats benthiques et l’aire disponible pour les microbes par rapport au volume d’eau qui s’écoule sont considérées comme des facteurs importants pour le métabolisme de l’écosystème. Malheureusement, le creusement et l’alignement des cours d’eau pour le drainage des terres pourraient compromettre les services natu
Short-distance pronominals
Gísli Rúnar Harearson
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2011,
Abstract: In both Icelandic and Faroese there are instances of pronominals taking local subject antecedents, usually when the pronominal is within a PP. This paper discusses a study on pronominals’ ability to take a local subject antecedent. The data for this study was collected in the Faroe Islands and Iceland in October and December 2009. The paper is intended to provide information concerning the possible factors facilitating pronominals’ ability to take a local subject antecedent. The focus of this study is on the effects of transitive verbs, typology of PPs and phonological heaviness of PPs on the acceptability of locally-bound pronominals in Icelandic and Faroese.
Early life environment and snoring in adulthood
Karl A Franklin, Christer Janson, Thórarinn Gíslason, Amund Gulsvik, Maria Gunnbj?rnsdottir, Birger N Laerum, Eva Lindberg, Eva Norrman, Lennarth Nystr?m, Ernst Omenaas, Kjell Torén, Cecilie Svanes
Respiratory Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-63
Abstract: A questionnaire including snoring frequency in adulthood and environmental factors in early life was obtained from 16,190 randomly selected men and women, aged 25–54 years, in Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Estonia (response rate 74%).A total of 15,556 subjects answered the questions on snoring. Habitual snoring, defined as loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week, was reported by 18%. Being hospitalized for a respiratory infection before the age of two years (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.59), suffering from recurrent otitis as a child (OR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.05–1.33), growing up in a large family (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 1.002–1.07) and being exposed to a dog at home as a newborn (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.12–1.42) were independently related to snoring later in life and independent of a number of possible confounders in adulthood. The same childhood environmental factors except household size were also related with snoring and daytime sleepiness combined.The predisposition for adult snoring may be partly established early in life. Having had severe airway infections or recurrent otitis in childhood, being exposed to a dog as a newborn and growing up in a large family are environmental factors associated with snoring in adulthood.About 16% of middle-aged men and 7% of women snore habitually [1,2]. They suffer from daytime sleepiness and run an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases [3-6]. Snoring is a sign of increased upper airway resistance, usually due to a compromised upper airway during sleep. Snoring and daytime sleepiness are also symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea.Enlargement of the lymphatic system with hypertrophy of the tonsils and the tongue are common causes of a reduction in the size of the upper airways. Infants snore during respiratory infections, and school children snore and suffer from sleep apnea when their tonsils are enlarged [7-10]. Mandibular retrognathia and narrowing of the lateral pharyngeal area
Reflexive sig is an argument
Jóhannes Gísli Jónsson
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2011,
Abstract: This paper argues that the simple reflexive pronoun sig is unambiguously a thematic argument in Icelandic. This is shown to be true not only of sig with naturally reflexive verbs but also of inherently reflexive sig. This view is mainly supported by two sets of facts: (i) that sig is impossible with verbs that fail to theta-mark their object (middles and anticausatives), and (ii) that case assignment works the same way for sig as for non- reflexive DP arguments. Potential counterarguments against my view involving focalization and reflexive passives are argued not to be valid.
Covert nominative and dative subjects in Faroese
Jóhannes Gísli Jónsson
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2009,
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a recent survey of dative subjects in Faroese, using a judgment task and data elicited from interviews with native speakers. The results indicate that dative subjects are in the process of being replaced by nominative subjects. Moreover, dative subjects behave like nominative subjects in that they may trigger number agreement with the finite verb. It is hypothesized that dative subjects in Faroese have an unrealized nominative case assigned by T(ense) and this makes number agreement possible. This hypothesis is argued to account for certain differences between Faroese and Icelandic, most notably the fact that verbs with dative subjects take accusative objects in Faroese but nominative objects in Icelandic.
Genomic stuff: Governing the (im)matter of life
Gísli Pálsson,Barbara Prainsack
International Journal of the Commons , 2011,
Abstract: Emphasizing the context of what has often been referred to as “scarce natural resources”, in particular forests, meadows, and fishing stocks, Elinor Ostrom’s important work Governing the commons (1990) presents an institutional framework for discussing the development and use of collective action with respect to environmental problems. In this article we discuss extensions of Ostrom’s approach to genes and genomes and explore its limits and usefulness. With the new genetics, we suggest, the biological gaze has not only been turned inward to the management and mining of the human body, also the very notion of the “biological” has been destabilized. This shift and destabilization, we argue, which is the result of human refashioning and appropriation of “life itself”, raises important questions about the relevance and applicability of Ostrom’s institutional framework in the context of what we call “genomic stuff”, genomic material, data, and information.
Occupational issues of adults with ADHD
Marios Adamou, Muhammad Arif, Philip Asherson, Tar-Ching Aw, Blanca Bolea, David Coghill, Gísli Guejónsson, Anne Halm?y, Paul Hodgkins, Ulrich Müller, Mark Pitts, Anna Trakoli, Nerys Williams, Susan Young
BMC Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-13-59
Abstract: This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general.The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem.Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems.
Continuous Dependence for the Pseudoparabolic Equation
Yaman M,Gür
Boundary Value Problems , 2010,
Abstract: We determine the continuous dependence of solution on the parameters in a Dirichlet-type initial-boundary value problem for the pseudoparabolic partial differential equation.
Swelling Behavior of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels near Phase Transition  [PDF]
R. R. Janot Pacheco, M. E. S. R. Silva, R. G. Sousa, R. F. S. Freitas
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.58063
Abstract:
Hydrogels based on acrylamide (AA) and sodium methacrylate (NMA) as ionic monomer were prepared by solution polymerization using N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA) or ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGMA) as crosslinkers and Ammonium Persulfate (APS) and N,N,N’,N’-Te-tramethyl-ethylenediamine (TMEDA) as initiators. Swelling behavior was greatly affected by NMA content near phase transition. Increasing ionic monomer concentration compared to total monomer one led to high expansion in water, oscillating around 285 g/g for MBA and 325 g/g for EGMA crosslinker, above 20% of NMA. Dynamic Light Scattering experiments were performed and, for both crosslinkers, the dynamic correlation length (ξ) decreased with increasing NMA content, contributing to diminish hydrogels spatial inhomogeneities.
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