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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189936 matches for " Gérard Lucotte "
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The Major Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b-M269 in West-Europe, Subdivided by the Three SNPs S21/U106, S145/L21 and S28/U152, Shows a Clear Pattern of Geographic Differentiation  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.51003
Abstract: More than 2600 unrelated males from West-Europe were analysed by molecular hybridization experiments for the p49a,fTaq I polymorphisms. A total of 895 subjects (34%), belonging to haplogroup M269, were identified and further analysed for the three SNPs, S21/U106, S145/L21 and S28/U152; these three SNPs define the Northwest, West and South European sub-haplogroups, respectively. These haplogroups showed quite different frequency distribution patterns within West-Europe, with frequency peaks in Northern Europe, in Brittany in France and in Northern Italy/Southern France.
Exploration of the Face of the Turin Shroud. Pollens Studied by SEM Analysis  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2015.34014
Abstract: We studied by SEM-EDX analysis the pollens on the Face of the Turin Shroud. A total of ten pollen grains were found; they were photographed, characterised and analysed. Three of them (pollens p6, p7 and p10) belong to Ceratonia siliqua, the carob tree; one of them (pollen p1) belongs to Balanites aegyptiaca (the palm tree of the desert), and another one (pollen p9) belongs to Cercis siliquastrum (the Judean tree). These three plants have their geographical distributions in the Near-East; that is indicative of a Palestinian origin of the Turin Shroud. Two pollen grains (p3 and p4) belong to Myosotis ramosissima. Probably myositis flowers were deposited later on the Turin Shroud, as reverence for this venerable and symbolic object.
Skin Debris on the Face of the Turin Shroud: A SEM-EDX Analysis  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2016.42008
Abstract: Aim: We have studied the only found three skin debris (P1, P2 and P3) deposited on the Face area of our sample of the Turin Shroud. Methods: P1, P2 and P3 were explored by optical microscopy, by SEM and by EDX analysis. Results: All P1, P2 and P3 are true skin debris, as observed in optic and electronic microscopy; their elementary compositions show organic matter, plus a sulphur peak that corresponds to keratin. P1, P2 and P3 are constituted of layers of corneocytes; in P3, which is certainly a human skin debris, we can observe both the epidermis and some residual dermis.
Scanning Electron Microscopic Characterization and Elemental Analysis of One Hair Located on the Face of the Turin Shroud  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Thierry Thomasset
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2017.51001
Abstract: As a contribution to the scientific knowledge of the Turin Shroud, we have studied by SEM-EDX a small hair fragment (14 × 9 μ) contained in a blood stain located in the Face between the two eyebrows. SEM study of this fragment shows the typical human scale hair pattern. EDX analysis of the fragment indicates that it is mainly made of organic matter, plus a little sulphur peak. The hair fragment was at both cut extremities with a razor blade formed of copper. Comparisons with present hairs of different sorts show that the hair fragment is a shaven down-hair. High-resolution SEM analysis of the pattern of residual melanosomes on the hair surface explains the blond-red colour of this hair observed in optical microscopy.
The Y-SNP Z-381 Is a Patrilineal DNA Marker of the Royal Bourbon Family of France  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Florent Dieterlen
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2019.91005
Abstract: More than 1100 unrelated males from West-Europe were analysed by molecular hybridization experiments for the p49, f Taq I polymorphisms, and by polymerase chain reaction for the R-S21 and Z381 Y-SNP markers. The corresponding two SNP haplogroups showed similar packty frequency distribution patterns centred on Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and the north of Germany. Louis XVI, the last French King, is Z381+. A complete corrected Y-STRs profile is established for Prince Sixte-Henri of Bourbon-Parma, a living representative descendant of the French Bourbon family; exploration of further Y-SNP markers located under Z381 shows that he is of the DF98 haplogroup.
An Autosomal STR Profile of Napoléon the First  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Alexandra Bouin Wilkinson
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.44027

Objective: We report the results of nuclear DNA analyses of Napoléon the First (Napoléon Bonaparte; 1769-1821). Design: His genomic DNA was extracted from dandruff adherent to his hair, coming from a lock of his hair dating from the year of 1811. Results: We obtained the complete STR (short tandem repeats) profile of Napoléon, based on fifteen autosomal loci. On this profile, ten loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, D3S1358, TH01, D16S539, D2S1338, vWa, D18S51 and FGA) are heterozygous; the most frequent alleles in Caucasians are present for only seven (allele 8 for TPOX and allele 11 for D5S818, allele 13 for D8S1179, allele 10 for D7S820, allele 9.3 for THO1, allele 12 for D16S539 and allele 24 for FGA) of the homozygous and heterozygous loci. Conclusions: So the discriminating power of this sort of genetic profile is elevated, permitting useful comparisons to other STR profiles in the future. Finally, an analysis of fifteen Y chromosomal STRs from the dandruff of this lock of hair confirms allele values of Napoléon already obtained or deduced for the corresponding loci in previous determinations.

Hematite, Biotite and Cinnabar on the Face of the Turin Shroud: Microscopy and SEM-EDX Analysis  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Thierry Derouin, Thierry Thomasset
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.69059
Abstract: The Turin Shroud, recently accessible for hands-on scientific research, is now extensively investigated. Its pinkish red blood stains that seem anomalous ones are studied by modern techniques (notably by resolute optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray). Exploration by these techniques of a blood stain located on the face permits us to discover some red-colour particles (hematite, biotite and cinnabar) of exogenous material in this stain. We finally characterize these red-colour particles and try to explain their presences in the blood stain. Globally, all these red-colour particles cannot explain all of the reddish appearance of the area under study.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Rests on the Holy Maria-Magdalena’s Hairs, Studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Elemental Analysis  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Thierry Thomasset, Alain Salmon
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2018.63012
Abstract: As our new contribution to the scientific knowledge of Holy Maria-Magdalena remains, we have studied pollens and several vegetal tissues of fennel adhering to her hairs by optical microscopy and SEM-EDX. Pollen grains, foliar, pedicelar and stem debris found are characteristics of Foeniculum vulgare. Detailed examination of these tissue debris shows that the plant involved was carefully processed and cultivated. Fennel symbolism is an important attribute to the Ma-rie-Madeleine worship concerning the French “Tradition des Saints de Pro-vence”.
A rare variant of the mtDNA HVS1 sequence in the hairs of Napoléon's family
Gérard Lucotte
Investigative Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-1-7
Abstract: Genetic identification of old biological specimens is often limited to the analysis of short, degraded DNA fragments, but the development and application of comprehensive DNA testing for identification of old forensic or historical samples is of considerable interest. In the early 1990 s, forensic investigation of a grave found in Russia [1] suggested that the human remains it contained were those of members of the imperial Romanov family, specifically Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra and their children, together with three servants and a physician, who were all killed during the Russian Civil War in 1918.Owing to its high copy number, its rapid rate of evolution, and its haploid and maternal mode of inheritance, mitochondrial (mtDNA) has a number of advantages over autosomal DNA markers for the identification of human remains [2]. The high copy number, with several hundred mtDNA molecules per cell, means that with older remains there is a greater likelihood of success in analyzing mtDNA as opposed to autosomal DNA, simply because mtDNA is more abundant. The mtDNA control region, which includes the origin of H strand replication, the displacement (D) loop and both origins of transcription, is the most variable region of the human mitochondrial genome [3]. Most polymorphisms are concentrated in two hypervariable segments (HVS1 and HVS2), one of which encompasses the origin of replication, while the other lies within the D loop itself.The aim of the present study was to investigate if there are variants in the HSV1 mtDNA sequence of the French Emperor Napoléon I (Napoléon Bonaparte; 1769-1821) compared with the Anderson human genome sequence [3].A rare variant was found in the HVS1 sequence of the mtDNA extracted from preserved hairs, authenticated as belonging to Napoléon. Subsequently, the same rare variant was found in the HSV1 sequences of mtDNAs extracted from hair samples authenticated as belonging to Napoléon's mother (Letizia) and youngest siste
Marine Micro-Remains on Holy Maria-Magdalena’s Hair, Studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Elemental Analysis  [PDF]
Gérard Lucotte, Eglantine D’Hérissart, Thierry Thomasset
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2019.73009
Abstract: As a new contribution to the scientific knowledge of Holy Maria-Magdalena’s remains, we have studied by SEM-EDX some mineral particles and micro-organism debris adhering to her hair. We found on it mineral particles of gypsum, aragonite and salt, algae fragments, microorganism as diatoms, coccoliths and tintinnides, and micro-debris of Crustaceans. Such marine micro-remains indicate a past close contact of the hair with sea water.
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