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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405 matches for " Functioning "
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Cognitive Functioning and Insulin Regulation in Obese Youth  [PDF]
Christine A. Limbers, Jason Steadman, William Bryant, Matthew Stephen
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.31005
Abstract: Background: There are data that suggest adiposity is associated with diminished cognitive functioning in adults and youth, independent of related co-morbidities. Little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cognitive function in obese youth. The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among cognitive functioning and insulin regulation in a sample of obese youth. Methods: The sample consisted of 30 obese, non-diabetic youth (BMI > 95th percentile) ages 6-16 years (mean age = 12.60 years) referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. Youth were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2). Results: Verbal memory, attention/concentration, and intelligence scores were similar across obese youth with elevated insulin levels and normal insulin levels. Obese youth with elevated insulin levels had lower scores in visual memory, with a medium effect (effect size = 0.51). Fasting insulin levels were not associated with any of the four cognitive domains in the multiple linear regression analysis (P > 0.05). Conclusions: These data provide preliminary evidence that visual memory may be impacted in obese youth with insulin resistance. Longitudinal studies examining insulin regulation, cognitive functioning, and weight status over time are needed.
Upper respiratory tract infections in children: A normal stage or high parental concern?  [PDF]
Ellen J. Van Der Gaag, Nicole Van Droffelaar
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.23038
Abstract: Background: Families function less efficiently when one of the children suffers from illness. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are common among children. Though the child may have no critical or serious health problem, the parents may frequently get worried and visit the general practitioner or pediatrician. Do children with URTI who visit the doctor frequently pass through a normal stage in childhood or are their parents more concerned than usual? Methods: A questionnaire was filled out for 76 children between 1 and 4 years of age. Two groups were created: a URTI group and a control group. Results: The URTI group suffered from these infections for 19.4 days a month, compared with 5.9 days in the control group. In addition, they also suffered from fever for a longer duration and used more antibiotics. The parents of these children were found to be more concerned, caused by a fear of a serious disease. They often keep their child at home and make their child consume more medicines. Conclusions: Parents of children with recurrent infections are found to be more concerned and a hypothesis of high parental concern and child's illness is discussed. Minimizing parental concern can therefore be a possible preventive treatment.
Real and Perceived Physical Functioning in Italian Elderly Population: Associations with BADL and IADL  [PDF]
Filippo Candela, Giulia Zucchetti, Daniele Magistro, Enrique Ortega, Emanuela Rabaglietti
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.35045
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the key physical abilities (aerobic endurance, gait speed, balance, strength) and psychological variables associated with the level of basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living in an autonomous community-dwelling elderly population in Italy. 135 elderly people (63% women; mean age = 73.3, SD = 5.5) were included in the study. Stepwise regression was performed to verify the association between these variables and the level of BADL and IADL in the elderly participants. Results showed that balance (β = -0.21, p < 0.01) and perception of physical functioning (β = 0.32, p < 0.0001) were the key individual variables related to BADL scores, and IADL score was associated with perception of physical functioning (β = 0.30, p < 0.0001) and upper limb strength (β = 0.21, p < 0.05). The results demonstrate a relationship between physical functioning and ADL, both real physical functioning and perceived physical functioning.
Clinical Correlates Associated with Basic Ability of Social Life in Schizophrenia Inpatients  [PDF]
Shinichi Chiba, Masahito Tomotake, Masatomo Aono, Hidefumi Toshimitsu, Tetsuro Ohmori
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.61008
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study is to explore clinical factors associated with basic ability of social life in schizophrenia inpatients. Methods: The subjects were 50 inpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV). Their mean age was 53.08 (SD = 12.08) years. Social life functioning was evaluated using the Rehabilitation Evaluation of Hall and Baker (REHAB). Cognitive function was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and clinical symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia and the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). Results: The REHAB deviant behavior score showed a significant correlation with the PANSS positive syndrome score (r = 0.55, p< 0.01) and the REHAB general behavior score had significant correlations with the PANSS positive syndrome score (r = 0.28, p < 0.05), the PANSS negative syndrome score (r = 0.53, p < 0.01), and the DIEPSS score (r = 0.43, p < 0.01). However, there was no significant correlation between the scores of the REHAB and the BACS. Conclusion: These results suggest that negative and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms are much more important factors related to lowered basic ability of social life of schizophrenia inpatients than cognitive function.
Evaluation of Family Dysfunction in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder  [PDF]
Peyman Hashemian, Mohammad Edris Sedaghati
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.42001
Abstract: Introduction: Schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are very common disorders in hospitalized patients. Considering that family problems are one of the factors in the appearance and persistence of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, in this study, we decided to investigate and compare the family functioning between these two groups of patients. Methods: The sample consisted of 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 patients with bipolar I disorder. The third group was the control group which consisted of 50 normal different professions such as teachers, workers, housekeepers and others. Then the Family Functioning Scale (FAD-I) was used and the final results of the three groups were compared by SPSS V21 software. Results: In the schizophrenia group, 88.9% percent of patients had family functioning scores less than 109.81 which showed that they had severe family dysfunction but in the bipolar I disorder group, 11.1% and all participants in the control group, had scores higher than 109.81.Conclusion: Family dysfunction was seen in schizophrenic patients rather than in the other two groups.
Hydrologic Modeling Using SWAT and GIS, Application to Subwatershed Bab-Merzouka (Sebou, Morocco)  [PDF]
Yassine Bouslihim, Ilias Kacimi, Hassane Brirhet, Mourad Khatati, Aicha Rochdi, Namira El Amrani Pazza, Abdelhalim Miftah, Zainab Yaslo
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.81002
Abstract: Water management in morocco faces significant challenges in both levels, quality and quantity, in order to address these challenges and to secure the rational and efficient management of water resources, it is necessary to try to understand the different issues involved in the water cycle works! The large number of hydrological studies and techniques used at the Sebou watershed are limited to water quality, and the use of the simpler empirical models, that, do not permit to take into consideration all the factors affecting flow and cycle of water. In the purpose of using the hydrological model SWAT to study the hydrological functioning of the Sebou watershed (Morocco) which faces many problems regarding the management of its water resources like all the other watersheds in our country, this study focuses on the creation, organization and generation of input data (soil, soil occupation, climate…) using a GIS (ARCGIS) then, the configuration and calibration of the model and after that, the evaluation of the results. The main reason behind this work is to measure the adaptability of this model to the selected area in order to generalize the model to the whole Sebou watershed. The results are satisfying; they show that this model can represent the overall hydrological regime of the pilot basin Bab-Merzouka. This model can open up new perspectives regarding the effects of climate change, and the changes caused by humans on water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality.
The Field of Logistics Warehouse Layout Analysis and Research  [PDF]
Wei Wang
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.46116
Abstract: Logistics warehouse layout problem in circulation is one of the issues the enterprise concerned; storage as a logistics hub for transport links plays a role in the protection of stored products. During storage planning, in order to design a reasonable layout of warehouses, companies must consider seasonal product, quantity demand characteristics and the treasury itself highly characteristic and so on. Handling the number of products and their performance, will certainly affect the design of the warehouse place; at the same time, with seasonal variations, warehouse receipt must not only be able to accommodate the capacity of the warehouse area and height for design, but also consider that forklift and artificial operation need some work area, and it cannot affect normal operation of the product by placeholder area.
The Relationship between Executive Functioning and Emotional Intelligence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Reynolds, Alan J. Lincoln, Roya Iravani, Varvara Toma, Shamayne Brown
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2018.83022
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate marked deficits in the ability to initiate, maintain and sustain meaningful social interaction. While the social-emotional deficits represent a core set of problems, persons with ASD also demonstrate significant problems in initiating, sustaining and maintaining appropriate goal directed behaviors. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a construct that has been successfully applied to a range of skills that allow for the prediction of competent human social behavior. Executive Functions (EF) refer to constructs involving cognitive abilities necessary for initiating, sustaining and maintaining purposeful goal-oriented behavior. While both children and adults with ASD have previously shown to have atypical patterns of EF skills, little is known about EI in either children or adults with ASD. Moreover, there is no study examining the relationship between EI and EF that has been reported in individuals with ASD. The current study examined the relationship between EF and EI in children with ASD. Twenty children with ASD were compared to twenty neurotypical children on self-report and clinical assessments of EI and EF. Although the relationship between EF and EI was not statistically significant, results showed that children with ASD have deficits in interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills and overall EI when compared to their neurotypical peers. These results suggest that EF and EI are relatively independent domains of development that show compromise in persons with ASD and each may be necessary to support typical socially directed behaviors.
Behavioral and intellectual functioning in patients with tyrosinemia type I
Monika Pohorecka,Marta Biernacka,Anna Jakubowska-Winecka,Marcin Biernacki
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: In tyrosinemia type I (TT1) increased level of tyrosine and phenylalanine (both precursors of neurotransmitters), may potentially influence patients’ cognitive development. Aim of the study was to evaluate if the children during the treatment with phenylalanine- and tyrosine-restricted diet and nitisinone present with cognitive, emotional or behavioral problems and to find out whether plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine levels may have impact on this. Material and methods: Cognitive development and behavior, together with plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine levels, were analyzed in eight patients during their first five years of nitisinone treatment. Psychological examination has been done using standard diagnostic methods: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and Child Behavior Checklist CBCL/4-18 (parents version). Results: The results showed that in the patients with TT1, attention deficit is not rare, and may be connected with the variation of the plasma tyrosine level. Moreover the reverse correlation between attention deficit and results from verbal scale may suggest decreased ability to verbal reasoning, comprehension, verbal expression and school difficulties. Conclusions: What is significant for the presence of attention disorders and the related difficulties in using the intellectual potential is not the level of tyrosine (high vs. low), but its changes (stability vs. instability). Therapeutic trials to stabilize the tyrosine level could alleviate the difficulties in focusing attention. Following a diet is necessary for keeping the normal level of tyrosine.
Graduate Courses in Occupational Therapy and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health  [PDF]
Ana Rita Costa de Souza Lobo Braga, Leonardo Petrus da Silva Paz, Vera Regina Fernandes da Silva Mar?es
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.617197
Abstract: The formation of Occupational Therapists has become the subject of analysis and debate in recent decades after several changes in health policies in Brazil, among them the implementation of the National Curriculum Guidelines (NCGs) directing teaching practices in line with the Health Unic System and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Given these paradigms, the Occupational Therapy courses passed with several adjustments in their course of pedagogical political projects (PPPs) and their teaching practices. The study’s goal was to characterize the Occupational Therapy courses and analyze their PPPs focusing on changes in the health care model and the inclusion of ICF. The research was exploratory and was conducted through documentary analysis. By 2013 there were 63 occupational therapy courses working in the country, 44 in private institutions and 19 in public, demonstrating a lack of supply in public. The Occupational Therapy courses are still guided by the biomedical model, and the applicability of the ICF as well as the insertion of the biopsychosocial model are incipient in teaching practice.
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