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Adaptation changes in dynamic postural control and contingent negative variation during backward disturbance by transient floor translation in the elderly
Katsuo Fujiwara, Maki Maekawa, Naoe Kiyota, Chie Yaguchi
Journal of Physiological Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-12
Abstract: Compared with the first trial, the posterior peak position of CoPy changed significantly forward from the 12th trial in the young and from the 19th trial in the elderly during the initial set. The mean of the posterior peak position was more forward in second set than in the initial set for both groups and was significantly backward in the elderly compared to the young for both sets. These findings indicate that subjects in both groups adapted better to the postural disturbance in the second set than in the initial set, and the adaptation was later in the elderly. Late CNV in the young started to increase negatively from the middle of the S1-S2 period and peaked just before S2. Peak CNV amplitude was larger in the second set than in the initial set. In contrast, late CNV in the elderly exhibited no negative increase as in the young and peaked in the middle of the S1-S2 period, which was followed by gradual decreasing toward S2. No adaptive changes were found in late CNV for the elderly.It is conceivable that reduced activation of the frontal lobe may be one of the factors contributing to the decrease in postural adaptability in the elderly. The elderly may use various brain regions for the adaptation of dynamic postural control compared with the young.
The effects of neck flexion on cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in related sensory cortices
Fujiwara Katsuo,Kunita Kenji,Kiyota Naoe,Mammadova Aida
Journal of Physiological Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-31
Abstract: Background A flexed neck posture leads to non-specific activation of the brain. Sensory evoked cerebral potentials and focal brain blood flow have been used to evaluate the activation of the sensory cortex. We investigated the effects of a flexed neck posture on the cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in the related sensory cortices. Methods Twelve healthy young adults received right visual hemi-field, binaural auditory and left median nerve stimuli while sitting with the neck in a resting and flexed (20° flexion) position. Sensory evoked potentials were recorded from the right occipital region, Cz in accordance with the international 10–20 system, and 2 cm posterior from C4, during visual, auditory and somatosensory stimulations. The oxidative-hemoglobin concentration was measured in the respective sensory cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Latencies of the late component of all sensory evoked potentials significantly shortened, and the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials increased when the neck was in a flexed position. Oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right visual cortices were higher during visual stimulation in the flexed neck position. The left visual cortex is responsible for receiving the visual information. In addition, oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the bilateral auditory cortex during auditory stimulation, and in the right somatosensory cortex during somatosensory stimulation, were higher in the flexed neck position. Conclusions Visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways were activated by neck flexion. The sensory cortices were selectively activated, reflecting the modalities in sensory projection to the cerebral cortex and inter-hemispheric connections.
Asymmetric Electrostatic Force  [PDF]
Katsuo Sakai
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.610026
Abstract: Asymmetric electrostatic forces are a very interesting and new phenomenon. The magnitude of an electrostatic force that acts on a point charge does not change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. On the contrary, the magnitude of the electrostatic force that acts on a charged asymmetric shaped conductor does change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. 5 years ago, this phenomenon was reported by a simple experiment and a simulation and named as an Asymmetric electrostatic force unofficially by the author. After that, several simulations confirmed this phenomenon. However, several experiments did not yet confirm it clearly. The difference between the simulations and the experiments depends upon differences of their conditions. The simulations had been done under ideal (perfect) conditions; the experiments, on the contrary, had been done under actual (not perfect) conditions. In the new experiment, its conditions were improved to near ideal (perfect) conditions. As a result the existence of the Asymmetric electrostatic force was more clearly confirmed.
The (In)Sensitivity of Plural -S by Japanese Learners of English  [PDF]
Michael P. Mansbridge, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2018.85017
Abstract: Because the Japanese language does not have a robust plural morpheme system, it is morphologically incongruent with English. As such, L1 Japanese learners of L2 English are argued to be unable to fully acquire English plural morphemes. While previous studies have revealed limitations in L2 processing, recent studies have revealed that advanced-learners are sensitive to incongruent morphology. However, these studies have largely investigated processing within English as a second language context. As such, the present study investigated the sensitivity to inflectional number agreement in English by Japanese learners of English in Japan using the Lexical Maze Task. The results revealed that these learners were sensitive to violations in number agreement for both plural (this *dogs) and null (these *cat) morphemes. However, further analysis revealed that this was modulated by English proficiency. While participants with higher English ability were found to reveal greater sensitivity to ungrammatical morphemes, it was found that this was only the case for the ungrammatical plural (this *dogs). The ungrammatical null (these *cat) was instead revealed to evoke longer responses times by low proficiency learners, and high proficiency learners showed no sensitivity. This might be explained by a greater lexical variability among more advanced learners. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that despite morphological incongruence, non-advanced Japanese learners of English in Japan can acquire the English plural -S morpheme.
Organizational Knowledge Creation Aspectof ETS-VIII Spacecraft Development
Katsuo Yonezawa
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2005,
Abstract: Organizational knowledge creation (OKC) is increasingly essential in technology development of large-scale systems on information, communication, computer, and cybernetics. It is because innovation always emerges where those disciplines meet interactively to form interdisciplinary area, embedding full of tacit knowledge. This fact motivates us to investigate how to maximize dynamics of knowledge creation in organizational members at daily tasks for innovation in science and technology. The case study of ETS-8 Spacecraft Development is given here to examine the aspect of OKC.
Priority Information Determining the Canonical Word Order of Written Sinhalese Sentences  [PDF]
Arachchige Buddhika Prabath Kanduboda, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.21004
Abstract: The present study investigated the priority of information among case particles, thematic roles or grammatical functions in determining the canonical SOV word order of written Sinhalese. Four types of sentences were given to native Sinhalese speakers to perform sentence correctness decisions. The active sentences with transitive verbs in Experiment 1 and with ditransitive verbs in Experiment 2 revealed that canonical sentences (i.e., SOV or SOOV) were processed more quickly and accurately than the scrambled sentences (i.e., OSV or OSOV), which supported the existence of scrambling effects. However, since thematic roles, case particles and grammatical functions provide the same information for the SOV canonical order, two further experiments were conducted to single out the priority of information. In Experiment 3, native Sinhalese speakers processed passive sentences with canonical word order defined by case particles (i.e., SOV) more quickly and accurately than those defined by thematic roles (i.e., OSV). In Experiment 4, native speakers processed potential sentences defined by grammatical functions (i.e., SOV) more quickly and accurately than the information provided by case markers (i.e., OSV). Therefore, the present study concluded that grammatical functions play a crucial role to determine SOV canonical order.
To What Extent Does Accent Sensitivity Provide the Foundation for Lexical Knowledge and Listening Comprehension?  [PDF]
Arthur D. Meerman, Sachiko Kiyama, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.43037

The present study investigated the extent to which accent sensitivity provides the foundation for lexical knowledge and listening comprehension for Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). On an English accent correctness (i.e., YES/NO response) decision task, 63 participants showed considerably high accuracy and speed in identifying correctly-accented nouns (82.14% and 1091 ms) and adverbs (86.67% and 959 ms). However, students were much less accurate in rejecting incorrectly-accented nouns (72.33% and 910 ms) and adverbs (67.67% and 933 ms). The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that accent sensitivity makes no contribution to either participants’ lexical knowledge or listening comprehension skills. In contrast, a strong direct effect was found from lexical knowledge to listening comprehension. As such, accent knowledge by Japanese EFL students is isolated from their lexical knowledge, with no contribution to their ability for listening comprehension.

Triadic Synchrony: Application of Multiple Wavelet Coherence to a Small Group Conversation  [PDF]
Ken Fujiwara
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.714126
Abstract: By applying multiple wavelet coherence (MWC) to data from human body movements in triadic interaction, this study quantified triadic synchrony, rhythmic similarity among three interactants. Thirty-nine Japanese undergraduates were randomly assigned in a triad, and engaged in a brain-storming task. Triadic synchrony was quantified by calculating MWC to the time-series movement data collected by Kinect v2 sensor. The existence of synchrony was statistically tested by using a pseudo-synchrony paradigm. Results showed that the averaged value of MWC was higher in the experimental participant trio than in those of the pseudo trio in the frequency band of 0.5 - 1 Hz. The result supports the possible utility of applying multiple wavelet coherence to evaluate triadic synchrony in a small group interaction.
Boundedness of several operators on weighted Herz spaces
Yasuo Komori,Katsuo Matsuoka
Journal of Function Spaces and Applications , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/739134
Abstract: We consider the boundedness of singular integral operators and fractional integral operators on weighted Herz spaces. For this purpose we introduce generalized Herz space. Our results are the best possible.
Bridging the Participation Gap with Government-sponsored Neighborhood Development Programs: Can Civic Skills Be Taught? El Uso de Programas de Desarrollo Social para Fomentar el Civismo
Katsuo A. Nishikawa
Journal of Politics in Latin America , 2012,
Abstract: I argue that innovative development programs that require citizen participation in the production of public goods can have unexpected bene-fits for individuals’ dispositions toward democracy. In particular, I explore the effect of taking part in state-sponsored neighborhood development programs – direct-democracy type programs that require individuals to organize within their community as a precondition for state help – on participant dispositions toward democracy and willingness to take part in politics. To test this hypothesis, I use original survey data collected in the Mexican state of Baja California. To measure the effect of participation in neighborhood development programs, I conduct a quasi experiment via propensity score matching. I find robust evidence suggesting that participating in such programs correlates with higher levels of political participation, a better sense of community, more positive retrospective evaluations of the economy (according to both pocketbook and sociotropic measures), and overall higher support for the government. En este estudio, propongo que programas innovadores de desarrollo social que requieren de la participación ciudadana para crear bienes públicos pueden, inesperadamente, fomentar actitudes favorables para la democracia. Específicamente, analizo como las disposiciones democráticas y el interés por participar en la vida política de sus comunidades cambia entre beneficiarios y no beneficiarios del programa. Dicho programa posee un estilo de democracia directa, en donde se requiere que los beneficiarios se organicen a nivel colonia como condición de implementación del programa. Para probar esta hipótesis, realicé una encuesta en el estado de Baja California, México. Para medir el efecto de participación en programas de desarrollo social, hice uso del método estadístico conocido en inglés como “propensity score matching” para llevar a cabo un cuasi experimento. Al final, encuentro que hay bastante evidencia de que el participar en este tipo de programas se correlaciona con mayores niveles de participación política, un sentir de mayor arraigo con la comunidad, una mayor evaluación retrospectiva de la economía, y un mayor apoyo hacia el gobierno.
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