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Research indicates that women undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) experience intense unwanted emotions, and that these emotions may result in the decision to abandon treatment. This case-study explored stressors, emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies of a female couple undergoing IVF procedures over a ten-week period. A mixed-method approach involved participants completing a daily open-ended diary and self-report scales to assess emotions and emotion regulation in relation to partner and self. Diary results indicated both partners experienced frequent stressors resulting from the IVF process, stressors that were intensified by perceptual and financial factors. Participants experienced a range of intense pleasant (e.g., happy, excited) and unpleasant emotions (e.g., depressed, anxious), and sought to down-regulate unpleasant emotions using a range of cognitive, behavioral, and social strategies. Questionnaire data indicated complementary styles of emotion regulation that appeared to help sustain pleasant emotions and down-regulate unpleasant emotions. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions to help manage unwanted emotional responses to IVF treatment and corresponding regulatory efforts.
Wetland natural grasslands are important habitats for avian populations throughout the world. Unfortunately the increase of human population and rise in demand for settlements and agricultural land have degraded these habitats in many tropical wetlands. To effectively restore these natural grasslands and conserve avifaunal biodiversity, understanding of the relationships between habitat conditions and bird community structure are central. We used a combination of information from nearby villagers and field surveys to establish two important grassland habitats with low and high disturbance histories, and related the habitats to bird community structure. We surveyed a total of 119 sites in the two habitats to examine variation in the abundance, richness, diversity and composition of birds at Kilombero Wetland Tanzania. In total, 3049 individuals, 126 species, 88 genera and 45 families were recorded from Kilombero grasslands. Our results show that grasslands with low human disturbance had more number of bird species, genera, families and diversity (both ShannonWiener and Simpson) than the most disturbed grasslands atp< 0.05. However, the abundance and Shannon evenness of birds were not different (p> 0.05) between low and highly disturbed grassland habitats suggesting that other factors including variety of foraging sites are important. This study confirms that the wetland grasslands of Kilombero are important for conservation of birds including rare and endemic species. It is recommended that anthropogenic disturbancesshould be minimized including control of fire, regulation of agricultural activities and population of cattle within the wetland system to restore and conserve biodiversity.
Measuring the well-being of employees
through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or
negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their
circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes
provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental
health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly
become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible
environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome
measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this
purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and
personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes
that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis,
the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide
significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while
personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant
predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the
relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The
results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to
investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require
very brief scales.