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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 799 matches for " Fredrik Wiklund "
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Prostate cancer genomics: can we distinguish between indolent and fatal disease using genetic markers?
Fredrik Wiklund
Genome Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gm166
Abstract: Prostate cancer constitutes a major health burden, being the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in developed countries. In 2007, almost 800,000 new cases of prostate cancer and 250,000 deaths from this disease were estimated to have occurred worldwide [1]. The highest incidence of prostate cancer is observed in the USA, with 192,280 new cases and 27,360 deaths expected in 2009, thereby being the second most common cause of cancer-related death [2]. Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease and its natural history is not completely understood. Early autopsy studies have shown a high prevalence of clinically undetected prostate cancer at time of death. In the USA, more than one in three men over 50 years of age had histologic evidence of prostate cancer at autopsy and this prevalence was observed to increase with age, with more than 67% of men aged over 80 years having prostate cancer at time of death [3]. These findings indicate that a high proportion of prostate tumors are clinically insignificant and will never lead to a lethal outcome. Furthermore, the introduction and widespread application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has led to increased detection of early-stage, low-volume, non-palpable tumors. This has in turn raised concerns of increased overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment of indolent disease [4,5]. To this end, new strategies to help clinicians distinguish between lethal and indolent prostate cancer are urgently needed. Prostate cancer is one of the most heritable cancers in men and recent studies have revealed numerous genetic variants associated with this disease. This review will give an overview of the current knowledge of prostate cancer genetics, with a special focus on the ability of genetic variants to predict more aggressive forms.A family history of prostate cancer is one of the strongest risk factors, and twin studies suggest that as much as 42% of the disease risk is explained by heritable factors [6]. Attempts to
Is Genetic Background Important in Lung Cancer Survival?
Linda S. Lindstr?m, Per Hall, Mikael Hartman, Fredrik Wiklund, Kamila Czene
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005588
Abstract: Background In lung cancer, a patient's survival is poor with a wide variation in survival within the stage of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the familial concordance in lung cancer survival by means of analyses of pairs with different degrees of familial relationships. Methods Our population-based Swedish family database included three million families and over 58 100 lung cancer patients. We modelled the proband (parent, sibling, spouse) survival utilizing a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model adjusting for possible confounders of survival. Subsequently, the survival in proband's relative (child, sibling, spouse) was analysed with a Cox model. Findings By use of Cox modelling with 5 years follow-up, we noted a decreased hazard ratio for death in children with good parental survival (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.99), compared to those with poor parental survival. Also for siblings, a very strong protective effect was seen (HR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.030 to 0.65). Finally, in spouses no correlation in survival was found. Interpretation Our findings suggest that genetic factors are important in lung cancer survival. In a clinical setting, information on prognosis in a relative may be vital in foreseeing the survival in an individual newly diagnosed with lung cancer. Future molecular studies enhancing the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and pathways are needed.
Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study
Camilla T. Karlsson,Fredrik Wiklund,Henrik Gr?nberg,Anders Bergh,Beatrice Melin
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3044127
Abstract: Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Ume? (Ume?, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35)], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73)]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.
Além da racionalidade instrumental: sentido histórico e racionalidade na teoria da história de J rn Rüsen
Martin Wiklund
História da Historiografia , 2008,
Abstract: O conceito de sentido é central no discurso histórico contemporaneo. A forma como o sentido é compreendido tem conseqüências cruciais para o uso da história, para as possibilidades de orienta o histórica e para os riscos de sua instrumentaliza o. Este artigo explica o sentido do conceito de sentido na teoria da história de J rn Rüsen, argumentando que sua perspectiva fornece, no que diz respeito aos temas da orienta o e da instrumentaliza o, uma alternativa mais promissora do que o objetivismo e o construtivismo relativista. Com o objetivo de explicar o conceito de sentido em Rüsen, diferentes conceitos de sentido ser o destacados. Uma distin o importante será feita entre sentido como constitui o e sentido como representa o. Em seguida, diferentes aspectos do conceito de sentido de Rüsen ser o articulados. Nesse pano de fundo, o conceito de ‘racionalidade de sentido’ será analisado e oposto tanto ao construtivismo, em sua inerente tendência ao instrumentalismo, quanto à tendência a objetificar o sentido em análises empíricas da consciência histórica.
Gert J J Biesta & Denise Egéa-Kuehne, red (2001): Derrida & Education, London: Routledge. 251 s
Matilda Wiklund
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 2003,
Carcass treatments for improved meat quality (In Swedish with Summary in English)
Eva Wiklund
Rangifer , 2005,
Abstract: Meat quality is a term that includes many different aspects like e.g. safety, ethics, nutrition, taste and functionality. What is regarded as most important is mainly related to where a person is placed in the chain from production to consumption. Along this chain are also many factors that influence the quality of meat. By measuring the pH value of meat it is possible to get good information about shelf life, tenderness, colour and water-holding capacity. Meat pH also gives an indication to whether the animals have been exposed to stress prior to slaughter or not. Good pastures and supplementary feeding using grain-based feed mixtures have been demonstrated to increase the energy stores in the animals' muscles and therefore have a positive effect on pH values in venison. What the animals had been eating prior to slaughter also affected the fat composition and meat flavour. Meat from animals grazing pasture had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and a "wild" flavour compared with meat from animals fed grain-based pellets. It is possible to change the fat composition in a commercial grain-based feed mixture, without altering the protein or energy content, so that the fat composition mimic that of a natural pasture. Pelvic suspension of a carcass will stretch the muscles in valuable cuts and improve the tenderness of the meat. In fallow deer carcasses the tenderness was improved in several meat cuts and in addition the water-holding capacity of the meat increased after pelvic suspension. Electrical stimulation of the carcass quickly empties the energy stores in the muscles and accelerates the onset of rigor mortis. In red deer venison electrical stimulation accelerated the rate of meat tenderisation, but this benefit was lost after approx. 3 weeks of ageing (-1.5 °C). A study from Alaska demonstrated no effects of electrical stimulation of reindeer carcasses on meat tenderness or water-holding capacity. We recommend further studies of pelvic suspension and electrical stimulation to get a better understanding of their effects on venison quality and to be able to implement these techniques in the most optimal way.
Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi)
Eva Wiklund
Rangifer , 2011,
Abstract: In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi) from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months) were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli). The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in stersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis) where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL). The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter) was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g). At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05) and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.
Wave interactions in a shallow-water model
K. Wiklund
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 1998,
Abstract: By using a Hamiltonian method, non-linear three-wave interaction in a class of systems related to the shallow water model is considered and a general coupling coefficient is presented. In the special case where two inertial waves and one Rossby wave interact resonantly, it is found that even a very small shear of the background velocity can be important in the interaction process. The stability of the system is considered by using a pseudo-energy method. Some implications for the dynamics of atmospheric flows are pointed out.
Pluricomplex charge at weak singularities
Jonas Wiklund
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: Let $u$ be a plurisubharmonic function, defined on a neighbourhood of a point $x,$ such that the complex Monge-Amp\`ere operator is well-defined on $u.$ Suppose also that $u$ has a weak singularity, in the sense that the Lelong number of $u$ at $x$ vanish. Is it true that the residual mass of the measure $(dd^c{u})^n$ vanish at $x$? To our knowledge there is no known example that falsifies the posed question. In this paper some partial results are obtained. We find that for a significant subset of plurisubharmonic functions with well defined Monge-Amp\`ere mass vanishing Lelong number does implies vanishing residual mass of the Monge-Amp\`ere measure.
Monge-Ampère measure at the boundary of some domains with corners
Jonas Wiklund
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Let $\mu^z$ be the measure obtained by sweeping out the Monge-Amp\`ere measure of the pluricomplex Green function with pole at $z. $ We prove that $\mu^z$ vanish on Levi flat parts of the boundary for 1) every relatively compact analytic polyhedron in complex space, 2) product domains of hyperconvex sets in Stein manifolds.
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