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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1292 matches for " Frederick Cubbage "
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Forest Tenure and Sustainable Forest Management  [PDF]
Jacek P. Siry, Kathleen McGinley, Frederick W. Cubbage, Pete Bettinger
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55046
Abstract: We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands. The analyses of countries as a whole suggest that problems of forest land loss and sustainable forest management are related to the amount of public lands owned, as well as the difference between developed and developing countries. Developed countries have largely achieved a stable level of land use and resource extraction after centuries of exploitation of forests and natural resources. Many developed countries do have greater amounts of private forest land than developing countries, which have occurred as the countries transfer lands to private owners in the course of development. Public lands and management approaches require diligence, but can be developed to meet the design criteria suggested by tenure rights theorists. Private or communal ownership is often considered superior, but also must meet the criteria suggested above in order to foster sustainable forest management in poor countries.
Forest Wetland Area and the Forest Sector Economy in the U.S. South  [PDF]
Frederick Cubbage, Robert Abt, Ray Sheffield, Curt Flather, James Wickham
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.83026
Abstract: This article reviews current data on forest wetlands and their economic contributions in the South, ranging from Texas to Virginia. Based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, the wetland category comprised 17.7% of timber land area on all private and public lands in the South. This included 4.25 million ha of hydric sites; 0.77 million ha mesic wet; 9.55 million ha mesic, with only seasonal access; for a total of 14.57 million ha. The Natural Resource Inventory (NRI) for 2012 on private lands estimated that there were 14.71 million ha forested wetlands, which comprised 17.7% of all forested private forest area. The 2015 National Land Cover Data for the South estimated that there were 17.8 million ha of woody wetlands, which comprised 8% to 12% of the southern land area, and there were also 4.45 million ha of emergent herbaceous sites. About 10% of the southern timber forest sector would be based on harvests from wetland forests economy ($455 million per year), while the 17.7% of wetland land area would provide a proportional share of the annual nontimber forest products ($44 million) and payments for ecosystem services ($134 million). Wetlands also provide important nontimber forest products, and ecosystem services, which are beginning to develop active private and public markets.
The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica
Jessica Haynes,Frederick Cubbage,Evan Mercer,Erin Sills
Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/su4071466
Abstract: Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.
Ronalds W. Gonzalez,Daniel Saloni,Sudipta Dasmohapatra,Frederick Cubbage
BioResources , 2008,
Abstract: South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.
Opinions of Forest Managers, Loggers, and Forest Landowners in North Carolina regarding Biomass Harvesting Guidelines
Diane Fielding,Frederick Cubbage,M. Nils Peterson,Dennis Hazel,Brunell Gugelmann,Christopher Moorman
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/256141
Abstract: Woody biomass has been identified as an important renewable energy source capable of offsetting fossil fuel use. The potential environmental impacts associated with using woody biomass for energy have spurred development of biomass harvesting guidelines (BHGs) in some states and proposals for BHGs in others. We examined stakeholder opinions about BHGs through 60 semistructured interviews with key participants in the North Carolina, USA, forest business sector—forest managers, loggers, and forest landowners. Respondents generally opposed requirements for new BHGs because guidelines added to best management practices (BMPs). Most respondents believed North Carolina’s current BMPs have been successful and sufficient in protecting forest health; biomass harvesting is only an additional component to harvesting with little or no modification to conventional harvesting operations; and scientific research does not support claims that biomass harvesting negatively impacts soil, water quality, timber productivity, or wildlife habitat. Some respondents recognized possible benefits from the implementation of BHGs, which included reduced site preparation costs and increases in proactive forest management, soil quality, and wildlife habitat. Some scientific literature suggests that biomass harvests may have adverse site impacts that require amelioration. The results suggest BHGs will need to be better justified for practitioners based on the scientific literature or linked to demand from new profitable uses or subsidies to offset stakeholder perceptions that they create unnecessary costs. 1. Introduction Woody biomass from southeastern US forests is expected to play an important role in meeting the nation’s future energy needs [1, 2]. Woody biomass includes small diameter trees, tops, limbs, or otherwise nonmerchantable forest products which are used for energy production and have not been utilized previously. The expansion of woody biomass-based energy raises concerns of forest sustainability, environmental degradation, and negative impacts on biodiversity [3–5]. North Carolina has mandated forest practice guidelines (FPGs), which are linked to recommended forestry best management practices (BMPs)—voluntary guidelines that were developed to protect water quality. However, these guidelines do not specifically address the harvesting of woody biomass, and removing this material has the potential to affect soil productivity, water quality, and forest biodiversity and could negatively affect forest health [3, 6]. These concerns led to the development of woody biomass
Regulating the Sustainability of Forest Management in the Americas: Cross-Country Comparisons of Forest Legislation
Kathleen McGinley,Raquel Alvarado,Frederick Cubbage,Diana Diaz,Pablo J. Donoso,Laércio Ant?nio Gon?alves Jacovine,Fabiano Luiz de Silva,Charles MacIntyre,Elizabeth Monges Zalazar
Forests , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/f3030467
Abstract: Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy directives in terms of legislative, planning, operational, environmental/ecological, social, and economic aspects and classify them by the type of policy obligation: (1) non-discretionary laws or rules; or (2) discretionary, voluntary directives; and, further, by the type of policy approach: (1) a specific technology or practice required or recommended; (2) a process or system requirement or recommendation; or (3) a performance or outcome based requirement or recommendation. Protection of at-risk species and riparian buffers are required in all countries and include specific prescriptions in most; forest management planning and secure, legal land title or tenancy are commonly required; and mandatory processes to protect soil and water quality are customary. Less common requirements include forest monitoring and social and economic aspects, and, when in place, they are usually voluntary. Implications for improved policies to achieve sustainable forest management (SFM) are discussed.
Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.) Extent and Sustainability in Western North Carolina  [PDF]
Jill Furgurson, Fred Cubbage, Erin Sills, Peter Bates
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24026
Abstract: Bloodroot distribution and abundance were assessed in the Waynesville watershed in Western North Carolina. This high quality site provides a benchmark for bloodroot populations in the region. Summary data from an inventory of nine stands of bloodroot in the watershed are presented. Analysis of inventory data reveals that both petiole height and petiole diameter are negatively associated with overstory tree DBH, suggesting that there is an optimal overstory structure for bloodroot. In the Waynesville watershed, seven out of nine stands have an average tree DBH between 27.38 cm and 36.17 cm. Allometric equations re-lating belowground biomass to bloodroot petiole height and diameter have strong explanatory power, indicating that harvesters could selectively harvest large rhizomes by targeting plants with larger petioles. These results in combination with natural history, field observations and literature provide insights on the sustainability of bloodroot harvest in Southern Appalachia. Wild bloodroot is likely becoming scarce due to loss of favorable sites, such as rich cove forests, as well as harvest pressure.
Disequilibrium Pricing Theory—Bubbles and Recessions  [PDF]
Frederick Betz
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.41009

How can one track a financial bubble as a likely precursor to bank panics and subsequent recessions? We model the Minsky-Keynes depiction of a financial marketby extending the “equilibrium-price” model to a “disequilibrium-price” model, through adding a third dimension of time. In this way, we use a topological graphic approach to see how the models from the two schools of economics, exogenous and endogenous, relate to each other as complementary models of production and financial sub-systems. These economic models are partial models in an economynot a model of the whole economy. However, such partial models can be used to anticipate financial bubbleshence bank runs and recessions due to bank runswhich typically follow.

Analyses of Physical Data to Evaluate the Potential to Identify Class I Injection Well Fluid Migration Risk  [PDF]
Frederick Bloetscher
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.56057

Injection wells have been used for disposal of fluids for nearly 100 years. Design of injection well systems has advanced over the years, but environmental concerns due to the potential for migration of injected fluids remain. Fluids range from hazardous materials, to mining waste to treated wastewater. This paper presents an evaluation of wells injecting treated wastewater to assess which create the greatest risk to migration potential. Prior studies have looked at the risks of Class I injection wells for wastewater disposal, but limited data were available at that time. This research involved collecting data and evaluating the differences as a means to predict the potential for fluid migration in the wells. There were four issues that might portend migration: well depth-shallower wells tended to have more migration; the tightness of the confining unit immediately above the injection zone; well age; and the use of tubing and packers. Florida is moving away from tubing and packer wells which may be an indicative of this issue. The results provide a pathway to investigate injection wells in other states.

Disequilibrium Pricing—Greek Euro Crisis  [PDF]
Frederick Betz
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49113
Abstract: Financial instability in Greece began in 2009 when the interest rates on Greek sovereign bonds surged; and this can be graphed in a “price disequilibrium” model. To explain how this came about, we create a systems-dynamics model of the Greek fiscal system. Government fiscal systems are not a kind of a “causal” system, but a “structural-functional” system instead. This approach is in the spirit of the Keynes-Minsky model of a financial market as a “dynamic” of the value of capital assets. Financial bubbles occur from “perceptions”—cognitive “reflexivity” in Soros’ term—as expectations of the future values in a financial market. The Greek government fiscal crisis is a “Minsky moment”, which occurs at a time when traders in a financial market have moved from speculative finance to the unstable reflexivity in Ponzi finance. The governments in Greece had indulged in the dynamics of a budget policy of “Ponzi finance”. Unsound fiscal policy over many years had accumulated a very large and increasing government debt—until bond market “reflexive cognition” triggered the Greek fiscal crisis in 2010. The “reflexive perception” of bond traders was that either the Greek government must “default” or be “bailed out”.
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