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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222532 matches for " Freddie C. Hamdy equal contributor "
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Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele: Evidence for Synthetic Association in Prostate Cancer
Edward J. Saunders,Tokhir Dadaev,Daniel A. Leongamornlert,Sarah Jugurnauth-Little,Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz,Fredrik Wiklund,Ali Amin Al Olama,Sara Benlloch,David E. Neal equal contributor,Freddie C. Hamdy equal contributor,Jenny L. Donovan equal contributor,Graham G. Giles equal contributor,Gianluca Severi equal contributor,Henrik Gronberg equal contributor,Markus Aly equal contributor,Christopher A. Haiman equal contributor,Fredrick Schumacher equal contributor,Brian E. Henderson equal contributor,Sara Lindstrom equal contributor,Peter Kraft equal contributor,David J. Hunter equal contributor,Susan Gapstur equal contributor,Stephen Chanock equal contributor,Sonja I. Berndt equal contributor,Demetrius Albanes equal contributor,Gerald Andriole equal contributor,Johanna Schleutker equal contributor,Maren Weischer equal contributor,B?rge G. Nordestgaard equal contributor,Federico Canzian equal contributor,Daniele Campa equal contributor,Elio Riboli equal contributor,Tim J. Key equal contributor,Ruth C. Travis equal contributor,Sue A. Ingles equal contributor,Esther M. John equal contributor,Richard B. Hayes equal contributor,Paul Pharoah equal contributor,Kay-Tee Khaw equal contributor,Janet L. Stanford equal contributor,Elaine A. Ostrander equal contributor,Lisa B. Signorello equal contributor,Stephen N. Thibodeau equal contributor,Daniel Schaid equal contributor,Christiane Maier equal contributor,Adam S. Kibel equal contributor,Cezary Cybulski equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004129
Abstract: The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10?14). Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.
High-Resolution Genome-Wide Dissection of the Two Rules of Speciation in Drosophila
John P Masly equal contributor ,Daven C Presgraves equal contributor
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050243
Abstract: Postzygotic reproductive isolation is characterized by two striking empirical patterns. The first is Haldane's rule—the preferential inviability or sterility of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex. The second is the so-called large X effect—substitution of one species's X chromosome for another's has a disproportionately large effect on hybrid fitness compared to similar substitution of an autosome. Although the first rule has been well-established, the second rule remains controversial. Here, we dissect the genetic causes of these two rules using a genome-wide introgression analysis of Drosophila mauritiana chromosome segments in an otherwise D. sechellia genetic background. We find that recessive hybrid incompatibilities outnumber dominant ones and that hybrid male steriles outnumber all other types of incompatibility, consistent with the dominance and faster-male theories of Haldane's rule, respectively. We also find that, although X-linked and autosomal introgressions are of similar size, most X-linked introgressions cause hybrid male sterility (60%) whereas few autosomal introgressions do (18%). Our results thus confirm the large X effect and identify its proximate cause: incompatibilities causing hybrid male sterility have a higher density on the X chromosome than on the autosomes. We evaluate several hypotheses for the evolutionary cause of this excess of X-linked hybrid male sterility.
Shifting Baselines, Local Impacts, and Global Change on Coral Reefs
Nancy Knowlton equal contributor ,Jeremy B. C Jackson equal contributor
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060054
Abstract:
Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies
Danielle C. M. Belgrave equal contributor ,Raquel Granell equal contributor,Angela Simpson equal contributor,John Guiver equal contributor,Christopher Bishop equal contributor,Iain Buchan equal contributor,A. John Henderson equal contributor,Adnan Custovic equal contributor
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001748
Abstract: Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (~7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Cryptococcus neoformans Overcomes Stress of Azole Drugs by Formation of Disomy in Specific Multiple Chromosomes
Edward Sionov equal contributor,Hyeseung Lee equal contributor,Yun C. Chang equal contributor,Kyung J. Kwon-Chung
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000848
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a haploid environmental organism and the major cause of fungal meningoencephalitis in AIDS patients. Fluconazole (FLC), a triazole, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcosis. Heteroresistance to FLC, an adaptive mode of azole resistance, was associated with FLC therapy failure cases but the mechanism underlying the resistance was unknown. We used comparative genome hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR in order to show that C. neoformans adapts to high concentrations of FLC by duplication of multiple chromosomes. Formation of disomic chromosomes in response to FLC stress was observed in both serotype A and D strains. Strains that adapted to FLC concentrations higher than their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) contained disomies of chromosome 1 and stepwise exposure to even higher drug concentrations induced additional duplications of several other specific chromosomes. The number of disomic chromosomes in each resistant strain directly correlated with the concentration of FLC tolerated by each strain. Upon removal of the drug pressure, strains that had adapted to high concentrations of FLC returned to their original level of susceptibility by initially losing the extra copy of chromosome 1 followed by loss of the extra copies of the remaining disomic chromosomes. The duplication of chromosome 1 was closely associated with two of its resident genes: ERG11, the target of FLC and AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans. This adaptive mechanism in C. neoformans may play an important role in FLC therapy failure of cryptococcosis leading to relapse during azole maintenance therapy.
Time-Lapse Analysis and Mathematical Characterization Elucidate Novel Mechanisms Underlying Muscle Morphogenesis
Chelsi J. Snow,Michelle Goody equal contributor,Meghan W. Kelly equal contributor,Emma C. Oster equal contributor,Robert Jones equal contributor,Andre Khalil,Clarissa A. Henry
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000219
Abstract: Skeletal muscle morphogenesis transforms short muscle precursor cells into long, multinucleate myotubes that anchor to tendons via the myotendinous junction (MTJ). In vertebrates, a great deal is known about muscle specification as well as how somitic cells, as a cohort, generate the early myotome. However, the cellular mechanisms that generate long muscle fibers from short cells and the molecular factors that limit elongation are unknown. We show that zebrafish fast muscle fiber morphogenesis consists of three discrete phases: short precursor cells, intercalation/elongation, and boundary capture/myotube formation. In the first phase, cells exhibit randomly directed protrusive activity. The second phase, intercalation/elongation, proceeds via a two-step process: protrusion extension and filling. This repetition of protrusion extension and filling continues until both the anterior and posterior ends of the muscle fiber reach the MTJ. Finally, both ends of the muscle fiber anchor to the MTJ (boundary capture) and undergo further morphogenetic changes as they adopt the stereotypical, cylindrical shape of myotubes. We find that the basement membrane protein laminin is required for efficient elongation, proper fiber orientation, and boundary capture. These early muscle defects in the absence of either lamininβ1 or lamininγ1 contrast with later dystrophic phenotypes in lamininα2 mutant embryos, indicating discrete roles for different laminin chains during early muscle development. Surprisingly, genetic mosaic analysis suggests that boundary capture is a cell-autonomous phenomenon. Taken together, our results define three phases of muscle fiber morphogenesis and show that the critical second phase of elongation proceeds by a repetitive process of protrusion extension and protrusion filling. Furthermore, we show that laminin is a novel and critical molecular cue mediating fiber orientation and limiting muscle cell length.
Interaction and Modulation of Two Antagonistic Cell Wall Enzymes of Mycobacteria
Erik C. Hett equal contributor,Michael C. Chao equal contributor,Eric J. Rubin
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001020
Abstract: Bacterial cell growth and division require coordinated cell wall hydrolysis and synthesis, allowing for the removal and expansion of cell wall material. Without proper coordination, unchecked hydrolysis can result in cell lysis. How these opposing activities are simultaneously regulated is poorly understood. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the resuscitation-promoting factor B (RpfB), a lytic transglycosylase, interacts and synergizes with Rpf-interacting protein A (RipA), an endopeptidase, to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. However, it remains unclear what governs this synergy and how it is coordinated with cell wall synthesis. Here we identify the bifunctional peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzyme, penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1), as a RipA-interacting protein. PBP1, like RipA, localizes both at the poles and septa of dividing cells. Depletion of the ponA1 gene, encoding PBP1 in M. smegmatis, results in a severe growth defect and abnormally shaped cells, indicating that PBP1 is necessary for viability and cell wall stability. Finally, PBP1 inhibits the synergistic hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the RipA-RpfB complex in vitro. These data reveal a post-translational mechanism for regulating cell wall hydrolysis and synthesis through protein–protein interactions between enzymes with antagonistic functions.
Cross-Talk with Myeloid Accessory Cells Regulates Human Natural Killer Cell Interferon-γ Responses to Malaria
Kirsty C Newman equal contributor,Daniel S Korbel equal contributor,Julius C Hafalla,Eleanor M Riley
PLOS Pathogens , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020118
Abstract: Data from a variety of experimental models suggest that natural killer (NK) cells require signals from accessory cells in order to respond optimally to pathogens, but the precise identity of the cells able to provide such signals depends upon the nature of the infectious organism. Here we show that the ability of human NK cells to produce interferon-γ in response to stimulation by Plasmodium falciparum–infected red blood cells (iRBCs) is strictly dependent upon multiple, contact-dependent and cytokine-mediated signals derived from both monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Contrary to some previous reports, we find that both monocytes and mDCs express an activated phenotype following short-term incubation with iRBCs and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. The magnitude of the NK cell response (and of the KIR? CD56bright NK cell population in particular) is tightly correlated with resting levels of accessory cell maturation, indicating that heterogeneity of the NK response to malaria is a reflection of deep-rooted heterogeneity in the human innate immune system. Moreover, we show that NK cells are required to maintain the maturation status of resting mDCs and monocytes, providing additional evidence for reciprocal regulation of NK cells and accessory cells. However, NK cell–derived signals are not required for activation of accessory cells by either iRBCs or bacterial lipolysaccharide. Together, these data suggest that there may be differences in the sequence of events required for activation of NK cells by non-viral pathogens compared to the classical model of NK activation by virus-infected or major histocompatibility complex–deficient cells. These findings have far-reaching implications for the study of immunity to infection in human populations.
The SR Protein B52/SRp55 Is Required for DNA Topoisomerase I Recruitment to Chromatin, mRNA Release and Transcription Shutdown
Fran?ois Juge,Céline Fernando equal contributor,Weronika Fic equal contributor,Jamal Tazi
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001124
Abstract: DNA- and RNA-processing pathways are integrated and interconnected in the eukaryotic nucleus to allow efficient gene expression and to maintain genomic stability. The recruitment of DNA Topoisomerase I (Topo I), an enzyme controlling DNA supercoiling and acting as a specific kinase for the SR-protein family of splicing factors, to highly transcribed loci represents a mechanism by which transcription and processing can be coordinated and genomic instability avoided. Here we show that Drosophila Topo I associates with and phosphorylates the SR protein B52. Surprisingly, expression of a high-affinity binding site for B52 in transgenic flies restricted localization, not only of B52, but also of Topo I to this single transcription site, whereas B52 RNAi knockdown induced mis-localization of Topo I in the nucleolus. Impaired delivery of Topo I to a heat shock gene caused retention of the mRNA at its site of transcription and delayed gene deactivation after heat shock. Our data show that B52 delivers Topo I to RNA polymerase II-active chromatin loci and provide the first evidence that DNA topology and mRNA release can be coordinated to control gene expression.
Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity
Angela Mika equal contributor,Priscilla Goh equal contributor,Deborah C. Holt,Dave J. Kemp,Katja Fischer
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001331
Abstract: Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut.
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