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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222563 matches for " Fred C. Adams "
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General Solutions for Tunneling of Scalar Fields with Quartic Potentials
Fred C. Adams
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.48.2800
Abstract: For the theory of a single scalar field $\varphi$ with a quartic potential $V(\varphi)$, we find semi-analytic expressions for the Euclidean action in both four and three dimensions. The action in four dimensions determines the quantum tunneling rate at zero temperature from a false vacuum state to the true vacuum state; similarly, the action in three dimensions determines the thermal tunneling rate for a finite temperature theory. We show that for all quartic potentials, the action can be obtained from a one parameter family of instanton solutions corresponding to a one parameter family of differential equations. We find the solutions numerically and use polynomial fitting formulae to obtain expressions for the Euclidean action. These results allow one to calculate tunneling rates for the entire possible range of quartic potentials, from the thin-wall (nearly degenerate) limit to the opposite limit of vanishing barrier height. We also present a similar calculation for potentials containing $\varphi^4 \ln \varphi^2$ terms, which arise in the one-loop approximation to the effective potential in electroweak theory.
The Birth Environment of the Solar System
Fred C. Adams
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-astro-081309-130830
Abstract: This paper reviews our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Since most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy, and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.
Theoretical Models of Young Open Star Clusters: Effects of a Gaseous Component and Gas Removal
Fred C. Adams
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317052
Abstract: We construct a family of semi-analytic models for young open clusters, including a gaseous component and varying assumptions about the distribution function for the stellar component. The parameters of these models are informed by observed open clusters and general theoretical considerations regarding cluster formation. We use this framework to estimate the fraction of the stellar component that remains gravitationally bound after the gaseous component disperses. The remaining stellar fraction is a smooth function of the star formation efficiency, and depends on the distribution function of the stars. We calculate the fraction of stars remaining for this class of open cluster models and provide fitting formulae for representative cases.
The Life and Times of Extremal Black Holes
Fred C. Adams
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1023/A:1001907827388
Abstract: Charged extremal black holes cannot fully evaporate through the Hawking effect and are thus long lived. Over their lifetimes, these black holes take part in a variety of astrophysical processes, including many that lead to their eventual destruction. This paper explores the various events that shape the life of extremal black holes and calculates the corresponding time scales.
Magnetically Controlled Outflows from Hot Jupiters
Fred C. Adams
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/1/27
Abstract: Recent observations that indicate that some extrasolar planets observed in transit can experience mass loss from their surfaces. Motivated by these findings, this paper considers outflows from Hot Jupiters in the regime where the flow is controlled by magnetic fields. Given the mass loss rates estimated from current observations --- and from theoretical arguments --- magnetic fields will dominate the flow provided that field strength near the planet is greater than $\sim1$ gauss, comparable to the surface fields of the Sun and Jupiter. The problem can be separated into an inner regime, near the planet, where the outflow is launched, and an outer regime where the flow follows (primarily) stellar field lines and interacts with the stellar wind. This paper concentrates on the flow in the inner regime. For a dipole planetary field with a spatially constant background contribution, we construct a set of orthogonal coordinates that follow the field lines and determine the corresponding differential operators. Under the assumption of isothermal flow, we analytically find the conditions required for escaping material to pass smoothly through the sonic transition, and then estimate the mass outflow rates. These magnetically controlled outflows differ significantly from previous spherical models: The outflow rates are somewhat smaller, typically ${\dot M}$ $\sim 10^{9}$ g/s, and the flow is launched primarily from the polar regions of the planet. In addition, if the stellar wind is strong enough, the flow could be reversed and the planet could gain mass from the star.
A Theory of the IMF for Star Formation in Molecular Clouds
Fred C. Adams,Marco Fatuzzo
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/177318
Abstract: We present models for the initial mass function (IMF) for stars forming within molecular clouds. These models use the idea that stars determine their own masses through the action of powerful stellar outflows. This concept allows us to calculate a semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF), which provides the transformation between initial conditions in molecular clouds and the final masses of forming stars. For a particular SEMF, a given distribution of initial conditions predicts a corresponding IMF. We consider several different descriptions for the distribution of initial conditions in star forming molecular clouds. We first consider the limiting case in which only one physical variable -- the effective sound speed -- determines the initial conditions. In this limit, we use observed scaling laws to determine the distribution of sound speed and the SEMF to convert this distribution into an IMF. We next consider the opposite limit in which many different independent physical variables play a role in determining stellar masses. In this limit, the central limit theorem shows that the IMF approaches a log-normal form. Realistic star forming regions contain an intermediate number of relevant variables; we thus consider intermediate cases between the two limits. Our results show that this picture of star formation and the IMF naturally produces stellar mass distributions that are roughly consistent with observations. This paper thus provides a calculational framework to construct theoretical models of the IMF.
A Dying Universe: The Long Term Fate and Evolution of Astrophysical Objects
Fred C. Adams,Gregory Laughlin
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337
Abstract: This paper outlines astrophysical issues related to the long term fate of the universe. We consider the evolution of planets, stars, stellar populations, galaxies, and the universe itself over time scales which greatly exceed the current age of the universe. (shortened version of abstract).
The Scalar Field Potential in Inflationary Models: Reconstruction and Further Constraints
Fred C. Adams,Katherine Freese
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.51.6722
Abstract: In this paper, we present quantitative constraints on the scalar field potential for a general class of inflationary models. (1) We first consider the reconstruction of the inflationary potential for given primordial density fluctuation spectra. Our work differs from previous work on reconstruction in that we find a semi-analytic solution for the potential for the case of density fluctuations with power-law spectra. In addition, for the case of more general spectra, we show how constraints on the density fluctuation spectra imply corresponding constraints on the potential. We present a series of figures which show how the shape of the potential depends on the shape of the perturbation spectrum and on the relative contribution of tensor modes. (2) We show that the average ratio $\rave$ of the amplitude of tensor perturbations (gravity wave perturbations) to scalar density perturbations is bounded from above: $\rave \le$ 1.6. We also show that the ratio $\rave$ is proportional to the change $\Delta \phi$ in the field: $\rave \approx 0.42 \Delta \phi/\mp$. Thus, if tensor perturbations are important for the formation of structure, then the width $\Delta \phi$ must be comparable to the Planck mass. (3) We constrain the change $\Delta V$ of the potential and the change $\Delta \phi$ of the inflation field during the portion of inflation when cosmological structure is produced. We find both upper and lower bounds for $\Delta \phi$ and for $\Delta V$. In addition, these constraints are then used to derive a bound on the scale $\Lambda$, which is the scale of the height of the potential
Infall Collapse Solutions in the Inner Limit: Radiation Pressure and its Effects on Star Formation
Jasmin Jijina,Fred C. Adams
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/177201
Abstract: In this paper, we study infall collapse solutions for star formation in the small radius limit where the particle orbits become nearly pressure-free. We generalize previous solutions to simultaneously include the effects of both radiation pressure and angular momentum. The effects of radiation pressure can be modeled using a modified potential; for representative cases of such potentials, we obtain analytical solutions for the density and velocity fields. In general, radiation pressure limits the maximum mass of a forming star by reversing the infall when the star becomes sufficiently large. Our results imply that this maximum mass scale is given by the condition that the turnaround radius $R_R$ (the radius at which the radiation pressure force exceeds the gravitational force) exceeds the centrifugal radius $R_C$ (the angular momentum barrier). The maximum mass scale for a star forming within a rotating collapse flow with radiation pressure depends on the initial conditions, but is generally much larger than for the case of spherical infall considered previously. In particular, stars with masses $M_\ast$ $\sim 100$ $M_\odot$ can form for a fairly wide range of initial conditions.
Implications of White Dwarf Galactic Halos
Fred C. Adams,Greg Laughlin
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/177717
Abstract: Motivated by recent measurements which suggest that roughly half the mass of the galactic halo may be in the form of white dwarfs, we study the implications of such a halo. We first use current limits on the infrared background light and the galactic metallicity to constrain the allowed initial mass function (IMF) of the stellar population that produced the white dwarfs. The IMF must be sharply peaked about a characteristic mass scale $M_C \approx 2.3 M_\odot$. Since only a fraction of the initial mass of a star is incorporated into the remnant white dwarf, we argue that the mass fraction of white dwarfs in the halo is likely to be 25\% or less, and that 50\% is an extreme upper limit. We use the IMF results to place corresponding constraints on the primordial initial conditions for star formation. The initial conditions must be much more homogeneous and skewed toward higher temperatures ($T_{\rm gas} \sim$ 200 K) than the conditions which lead to the present day IMF. Next we determine the luminosity function of white dwarfs. By comparing this result with the observed luminosity function, we find that the age of the halo population must be greater than $\sim 16$ Gyr. Finally, we calculate the radiative signature of a white dwarf halo. This infrared background is very faint, but is potentially detectable with future observations.
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